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Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda

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--- Quote from: Gaff on 24-08-2012, 09:45:08 ---Watch what happens when you play Cypress Hill through a squid’s fin

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Sto bi rekli Red Hot Chilli Peppers u pesmi Can't stop

"Music the great communicator
Use two sticks to make it in the nature "   :!:

Naučnici sada mogu da očitaju reakciju veštačko stvorenog tkiva na neke spoljne stimule pomoću silikonske mreže na koje je ovo tkivo nasađeno (via io9).

--- Quote ---Starting with a two-dimensional sheet, the researchers laid out a mesh of organic polymer around tiny wires — wires that would later serve as the critical sensing elements. Then, nanoscale electrodes were built within the mesh, thus allowing the nanowire transistors to measure the activity of the cells. After this was done, the substrate melted away, leaving a netlike material that could be folded or rolled into any number of three-dimensional shapes.
As hoped, the material was spongy and porous enough to be seeded with heart and nerve cells — and to allow those cells to grow in 3-D cultures. This was the first time that the researchers were able to work outside of 2-D limitations.
Moreover, the researchers were also able to detect electrical signals generated by cells deep within the tissue, and to measure changes in those signals facilitated by cardio- or neuro-stimulating drugs. And remarkably, they were also able to construct bioengineered blood vessels which were in turn used to measure pH changes — the kind of responses that would typically be seen when tissue responds to inflammation or ischemia.

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Researchers engineer light-activated skeletal muscle

Technique may enable robotic animals that move with the strength and flexibility of their living counterparts.

(via MIT News)

--- Quote ---Normally, neurons act to excite muscles, sending electrical impulses that cause a muscle to contract. In the lab, researchers have employed electrodes to stimulate muscle fibers with small amounts of current. But Asada says such a technique, while effective, is unwieldy. Moreover, he says, electrodes, along with their power supply, would likely bog down a small robot.

Instead, Asada and his colleagues looked to a relatively new field called optogenetics, invented in 2005 by MIT’s Ed Boyden and Karl Deisseroth from Stanford University, who genetically modified neurons to respond to short laser pulses. Since then, researchers have used the technique to stimulate cardiac cells to twitch.

Asada’s team looked for ways to do the same with skeletal muscle cells. The researchers cultured such cells, or myoblasts, genetically modifying them to express a light-activated protein. The group fused myoblasts into long muscle fibers, then shone 20-millisecond pulses of blue light into the dish. They found that the genetically altered fibers responded in spatially specific ways: Small beams of light shone on just one fiber caused only that fiber to contract, while larger beams covering multiple fibers stimulated all those fibers to contract.
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Genetically modified pet fish worries Florida environmentalists

(via The Washington Post)

Fraktali via Google Earth.

(via Paul Bourke)


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