Author Topic: Зика  (Read 4496 times)

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дејан

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Зика
« on: 26-01-2016, 12:13:55 »
Ово све симпатично подсећа на 'чилдрен оф мен' у олимпијској години у олимпијској држави
Quote
Zika virus: Outbreak 'likely to spread across Americas' says WHO

The Zika virus is likely to spread across nearly all of the Americas, the World Health Organization has warned.
The infection, which causes symptoms including mild fever, conjunctivitis and headache, has already been found in 21 countries in the Caribbean, North and South America.
It has been linked to thousands of babies being born with underdeveloped brains and some countries have advised women not to get pregnant.
No treatment or vaccine is available.
The virus was first detected in 1947 in monkeys in Africa. There have since been small, short-lived outbreaks in people on the continent, parts of Asia and in the Pacific Islands.
But it has spread on a massive scale in the Americas, where transmission was first detected in Brazil in May 2015.
Large numbers of the mosquitoes which carry the virus and a lack of any natural immunity is thought to be helping the infection to spread rapidly.
Mosquito
Zika is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, which are found in all countries in the region except Canada and Chile.
In a statement, The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the regional office of the WHO, said: "PAHO anticipates that Zika virus will continue to spread and will likely reach all countries and territories of the region where Aedes mosquitoes are found."
PAHO is advising people to protect themselves from the mosquitoes, which also spread dengue fever and chikungunya.
It also confirmed the virus had been detected in semen and there was "one case of possible person-to-person sexual transmission" but further evidence was still needed.
Around 80% of infections do not result in symptoms.
But the biggest concern is the potential impact on babies developing in the womb. There have been around 3,500 reported cases of microcephaly - babies born with tiny brains - in Brazil alone since October.
PAHO warned pregnant women to be "especially careful" and to see their doctor before and after visiting areas affected by the virus.
Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador and Jamaica last week recommended women delay pregnancies until more was known about the virus.
Although officially PAHO says "any decision to defer pregnancy is an individual one between a woman, her partner and her healthcare provider".
Maria Conceicao Queiroz said there was a sense of fear where she lives near the Olympic Park in Rio de Janeiro: "Every one is at risk, we're all scared of getting Zika.
"We're surrounded with dirty water, polluted water, but what can we do but put repellent on, to try to keep the mosquitoes away."
Global threat
Prof Laura Rodrigues, a fellow of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said some data suggested that up to one-in-fifty babies had birth defects in one of the worst hit areas - Pernambuco state in Brazil.
She said: "Until November we knew nothing, this has caught us by surprise and we're trying to learn as fast as we can.
"Wherever there is dengue, there is mosquito, then it will spread and not just in Americas I think there is a very real chance it will spread in Asia."
PAHO advice is to ensure all containers that can hold even small amounts of water should be emptied and cleaned to prevent mosquitoes breeding.
And that people should protect themselves by using insect repellent, covering up and keeping windows and doors closed.
The director general of the WHO, Margaret Chan, said the outbreak was "extremely worrisome".

још о Зики
Zika outbreak: What you need to know
Zika virus triggers pregnancy delay calls
GM mosquito expansion announced
Brazil Zika outbreak: New test kits for mosquito-borne viruses
Brazil state announces Zika fever emergency
...barcode never lies
FLA

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #1 on: 27-01-2016, 11:02:57 »
http://www.znaksagite.com/diskusije/index.php?topic=12098.msg615394#msg615394

prilično je zabrinjavajuće što današnja nauka mnogo malo zna o virusu, a pitanje je i koliko će ozbiljno da se angažuju dok ozbiljno ne zapreti severnoj americi i evropi.

it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Usul

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Re: Зика
« Reply #2 on: 27-01-2016, 12:28:00 »
Nazalost nije samo Brazil, siri se na sve okolne zemlje zbog avionskog saobracaja. I kod mene je kampanja o prevenciji u toku...
God created Arrakis to train the faithful.

дејан

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Re: Зика
« Reply #3 on: 27-01-2016, 13:01:40 »
лилит, знао сам да сам негде овде видео вест, јбг нисам успео да пронађем где па сам отворио тему
...barcode never lies
FLA

Karl Rosman

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Re: Зика
« Reply #4 on: 27-01-2016, 13:52:26 »
Prvi slucaj zabelezen u Danskoj.

P.S. Za ljubitelje epidemija: http://www.ndemiccreations.com/en/22-plague-inc
"On really romantic evenings of self, I go salsa dancing with my confusion."
"Well, I've wrestled with reality for 35 years, Doctor, and I'm happy to state I finally won over it"

дејан

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...barcode never lies
FLA

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #6 on: 31-01-2016, 07:48:22 »
Microcephaly: What is happening to the babies?
Quote
Pregnant women are being urged to think twice before travelling to Latin American and Caribbean countries battling a rise in cases of microcephaly -- a rare but brutal condition that shrinks the brains of unborn babies.
The increase has coincided with an outbreak of the usually benign Zika virus. But the virus and the birth defects have not been scientifically linked, leaving many questions about what is happening to these children in the womb.
We asked the experts.
Q: What is microcephaly?
A: Babies with microcephaly have an abnormally small brain and skull for their age, in the womb or at birth, with varying degrees of brain damage as a result. It has many potential causes: infections, viruses, toxins or unknown genetic factors.
- Jean-Francois Delfraissy of France's Inserm medical research institute.
Q: What are the consequences for the child?
A: In serious cases, early death. If the brain is under-developed, the body cannot function properly. In French Polynesia (one of the regions affected), these deformities have caused most of the babies to be stillborn, as the unborn infants simply cannot survive.
- Andre Cabie, infections disease head at the University Hospital of Martinique.
A: For children who survive pregnancy and are born with microcephaly, the future is bleak. In the worst cases, children will be severely intellectually and physically handicapped. But even those less severely affected will likely struggle with psychomotor impairment -- characterised by slow thought, speech and physical movements.
"It is a real tragedy."
- Delfraissy
Q: How does a virus affect an unborn child?
A: Many types of viral infections, such as rubella or cytomegalovirus, can cause physical deformities and intellectual deficiencies, especially during the first three months of pregnancy, when the vital organs are being formed. Viruses can travel through the placenta and infect the foetus directly, sometimes in the brain.
- Delfraissy
Q: Why is microcephaly thought to be linked to Zika virus?
A: Microcephaly cases seem to have increased in the zone of the Zika outbreak. But also, the virus has been detected in stillborn children with microcephaly, as well as in the amniotic fluid.
The link between Zika and microcephaly is highly likely, but has not yet been proven scientifically.
- Delfraissy
A: This is a very new situation. Until a few months ago we did not know that Zika could cause congenital infections (which are present from birth) and microcephaly. It caught us all by surprise.
The evidence for the link is relatively strong, and considered strong enough to warrant public health measures.
- Laura Rodrigues of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, via the Science Media Centre.
Q: What are we doing to learn more?
A: Studies are underway in French Polynesia, where a Zika outbreak ocurred around the end of 2013 - beginning of 2014, to better understand how the virus may affect foetuses. In Martinique, where there is an outbreak right now, a trial group of pregnant women is being put together for study.
The difficulty is that people infected with the virus usually have no symptoms. A pregnant woman can thus be infected without knowing it. On the other hand, cases have been observed of pregnant women infected with Zika whose children did not develop microcephaly.
- Cabie
Q: Is Zika contagious between people?
A: There has been a case of sexual transmission, and theoretically transmission by transplantation or transfusion cannot be ruled out. The main route of infection is through mosquitoes.
- Alain Kohl of the University of Glasgow's Centre for Virus Research.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #7 on: 03-02-2016, 00:44:35 »
stigosmo i do prenosa seksualnim putem:
Zika virus infection 'through sex' reported in US
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-35478778

a taman je poslednji veliki poziv za H2020 projekte isključio flaviviruse. počeću da paranoišem.
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Black swan

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Re: Зика
« Reply #8 on: 03-02-2016, 11:38:26 »
sagitovci nemaju brige jer nemaju seksa
Jedini forum na kojem pravim tipkarske grekše

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #9 on: 03-02-2016, 12:32:32 »
kako koji
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Black swan

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Re: Зика
« Reply #10 on: 03-02-2016, 12:36:28 »
sa samim sobom se ne računa
niti među sagitašima
to je zatvoren skup
Jedini forum na kojem pravim tipkarske grekše

дејан

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Re: Зика
« Reply #11 on: 07-03-2016, 13:40:14 »
...barcode never lies
FLA

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #12 on: 08-03-2016, 22:42:44 »
 Zika 'link' to new, paralysing disease: report
 
Quote
Paris (AFP) - Suspected of causing brain damage in babies and a rare neurological ailment in adults, the Zika virus was linked by researchers Tuesday to a third disorder: paralysis-causing myelitis.
French experts reported that a 15-year-old girl diagnosed on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe with acute myelitis in January had high levels of Zika in her cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine.
"This is the first published case to offer proof of a link" between myelitis and the virus sweeping Latin America and the Caribbean, Annie Lannuzel of the University Hospital Center Pointe-a-Pitre in Guadeloupe told AFP.
The case had been described in a report published by The Lancet medical journal.
"Until recently, Zika was thought to cause benign infections in humans," Lannuzel and a team wrote in the case report.
Instead, the "presence of Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of our patient with acute myelitis suggests that this virus might be neurotropic" -- something that attacks the nervous system.
The mosquito-borne virus usually causes mild symptoms in adults, with a low fever, headaches and joint pain, but the virus' quick spread has caused alarm due to an observed association with more serious health problems.
There have been fewer than a handful of reported cases of sexual transmission.
Last week, scientists said they had found the first evidence of a biological link between Zika and microcephaly, which causes severe deformation of the brains of unborn babies.
Laboratory tests found that Zika targeted key cells involved in brain development in the womb and then destroyed or disabled them, they said.
A separate study, also last week, offered evidence that Zika may cause Guillain-Barre, a rare condition in which the body's immune system attacks a part of the nervous system that controls muscle strength. Myelitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord which can affect limb movement and cause paralysis by interrupting communication between the spinal cord and the rest of the body.- 'Not benign' -
Some patients are left with permanent damage.
There is no effective cure, and treatment general consists of cortisone injections in strong doses.
In the reported case, a teenaged girl was admitted to the Pointe-a-Pitre hospital with partial paralysis, limb weakness, and intense pain.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #13 on: 03-04-2016, 07:34:25 »
Pošto se i kod nas proleće/ leto zaletelo da dođe pre vremena, a sa njima će i komarci, a svako ko ima oči video je prošle godine da prugasti azijski modeli počinju da zamenjuju domicilnu populaciju, onda da podsetimo i na Ziku:
 
 CDC braces for Zika’s US invasion as scientists watch virus melt fetal brain
 
Quote

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gathered more than 300 local, state, and federal authorities and experts at its Atlanta headquarters Friday to prepare for clusters of mosquito-transmitted Zika infections on the US mainland.
“The mosquitoes that carry Zika virus are already active in US territories, hundreds of travelers with Zika have already returned to the continental US, and we could well see clusters of Zika virus in the continental US in the coming months,” CDC Director Tom Frieden said in a statement prior to today’s meeting. “Urgent action is needed, especially to minimize the risk of exposure during pregnancy.”
Zika, a virus that has been tearing across Central and South America since last year, is mostly transmitted by mosquito, but it can also be spread through sexual contact. Generally the virus only causes mild illness, with symptoms including fever, rash, pink eye, and aches. But in the recent outbreaks, Zika has been linked to rare cases of paralyzing auto-immune disease, called Guillain-Barré syndrome. Of most concern, it's also linked to devastating birth defects, including microcephaly, in which babies are born with small, malformed heads and brains.
 
 
While researchers are still studying the link between Zika and microcephaly, health experts fear that microcephaly is just one of the potential problems for the unborn. “Perhaps one of the most important unknowns is what is the range of fetal abnormalities in addition to microcephaly,” Frieden said in a press conference during the summit. Microcephaly may just be the extreme, he and others noted. Babies exposed to the virus in utero may also suffer from less obvious developmental and cognitive problems, he speculated.
The fear is bolstered by recent data that has only strengthened the tie between the virus and the birth defect, with some studies finding the virus killing off developing brain cells. In a study released this week in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers report tracking the development of a fetus whose mother was infected with the virus during a trip to Central America while she was three months pregnant.
With blood tests and magnetic resonance images (MRI), researchers watched as the baby’s brain essentially turned to liquid in the course of nine weeks. The woman aborted the fetus at week 21.
Friday’s one-day summit covered such breaking scientific data on the virus and provided training to authorities on how to prevent, treat, and talk with the public (particularly pregnant women) about Zika and its health effects. Experts also focused on coordinating efforts to stamp down mosquito populations.
 
There’s a hodge-podge of practices in various communities for tackling mosquito control, and many of them are very effective, according to Amy Pope, a White House deputy homeland security advisor and deputy assistant to the president who spoke at the press conference. “The goal of today’s summit is to bring all of those practices together in one place, give folks sort of the menu of options, so that they can develop a comprehensive plan well in advance of when we see mosquitoes biting around the continental United States,” she said.
Though health experts don’t foresee extensive mosquito-borne outbreaks of Zika in the US, there’s reason to expect small clusters of transmission. Zika is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti and to a lesser extent Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes, which are present in some areas of the US, can also transmit yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses. Small outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue pop up in certain areas each year, particularly in Texas and Florida. Health experts suspect that Zika may behave similarly.
 
Frieden stressed the difficulty of knocking back Aedes populations, which are day-biters that can breed in very small amounts of standing water. Coordinated, sustained, and well-funded efforts are needed to control these populations, he said.
So far, there is no vaccine or specific treatment for Zika. However, in another scientific report in the journal Science this week, researchers report getting the first detailed, 3D image of the virus using cryo-electron microscopy. While the viral close-up looks unsurprisingly similar to that of dengue—a related virus—there are minor differences. Those findings could provide clues to how researchers might defeat the virus with a vaccine.
New England Journal of Medicine, 2015. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1601824  (About DOIs).
Science, 2015. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5316
 

zakk

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Re: Зика
« Reply #14 on: 04-04-2016, 12:25:04 »
Šta bi sa tvrdnjama da mikrocefaliju izaziva sredstvo protiv komaraca koje su prskali svuda, a ne sam virus?
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #15 on: 16-04-2016, 06:37:13 »
Šta bi sa tvrdnjama da mikrocefaliju izaziva sredstvo protiv komaraca koje su prskali svuda, a ne sam virus?

 
 Zika virus definitely causes birth defects, CDC says
 
 
A onda:
 

 
CDC Confirms Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus Between 2 Men 
 
Quote

  Researchers have for the first time determined that the Zika virus can be sexually-transmitted between men, according to officials from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
CDC officials said this mode of transmission "might contribute to more illness than was anticipated when the outbreak was first recognized."
The CDC published its study in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report.
"Such cases highlight the need for clinicians to remain vigilant for and continue reporting any suspected cases of Zika virus infection to their state or local health departments," according to the report. "This includes suspected infections in symptomatic persons without travel history, but who report unprotected sexual contact with a person who has traveled to an area with active Zika virus transmission."
The transmission occurred when one man returned to Dallas, Texas, after a weeklong trip in Venezuela. Two days after arriving back in the U.S., the man developed classic symptoms of Zika virus including rash, fever and conjunctivitis. The man's partner of 10 years developed symptoms five days later, including fever, fatigue and headache.
Medical officials confirmed both men had the Zika virus through blood tests. They determined that sexual contact was the most likely cause for the second man's infection since he had not been in a country where the virus was being transmitted from mosquitoes to people.
Symptoms for both men cleared up in approximately a week, according to the report.

 El Salvador Advises Women to Avoid Pregnancy for 2 Years Due to Zika Virus Outbreak

 Mosquito-Born Zika Virus Linked to Birth Defects

 Experts Explain Key to Stopping Zika Virus From Spreading
Earlier this week federal health officials declared there was enough evidence to conclude that Zika causes the birth defect microcephaly, which is characterized by an underdeveloped head and brain. Researchers and health officials said there is still much they do not know about the risks of the virus. 

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #16 on: 14-05-2016, 06:12:35 »
Rio Olympics could spark 'full blown global health disaster', say Harvard scientists 
 
Quote

The 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro could spark a “full-blown public health disaster”, doctors have warned.
Since the Zika virus was first identified in Brazil in May 2015, the disease's spread through Latin America has been declared a health emergency by the World Health Organisation and the number of suspected cases in Rio is the highest of any state in the country.
The continued presence of the virus ahead of the summer Olympics has caused athletes and health specialists to question the risks involved in allowing the Games to go ahead with hundreds of thousands of spectators travelling to the city.
 
Writing in the Harvard Public Health Review, Dr Amir Attaran said the Games could speed up the spread of the virus, and suggested the Games could be hosted by another city in Brazil where the illness is less of a threat.
He said: “While Brazil's Zika inevitably will spread globally, given enough time – viruses always do – it helps nobody to speed that up.
"In particular, it cannot possibly help when an estimated 500,000 foreign tourists flock into Rio for the Games, potentially becoming infected, and returning to their homes where both local Aedes mosquitoes and sexual transmission can establish new outbreaks.
     Battling the zika virus - in pictures “All it takes is one infected traveller, a few viral introductions of that kind, in a few countries, or maybe continents, would make a full-blown global health disaster.”
With less than three months to go until the Games begin on 5 August, it is unlikely the continued presence of the virus will cause officials to take drastic action.
However, the warning will be yet another blow to Brazilian authorities, who are already mired in a string of controversies that have undermined confidence in the country’s ability to host the Olympics.
Brazil is currently grappling with steep economic decline, while a continuing presidential impeachment attempt alongside the country’s largest ever corruption scandal has caused national outrage.
Elsewhere, severe water pollution problems, the collapse of a new cycle path resulting in the death of two people and frightening reports of gang violence in upmarket shopping areas has fuelled scepticism about the suitability of Rio to host the Games.
 

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #17 on: 22-05-2016, 07:34:30 »
austrijska štampa piše da je vakcina protiv zika virusa praktično gotova stvar, pretklinička ispitivanja kao kreću u novembru (premda ne nalazim isto to na engleskom):
http://derstandard.at/2000037402642/Zika-Impfstoff-wird-ab-November-getestet

nigde ne nalazim ni kakva će biti vakcina al javlja mi se da bi ovo sa live-attenuated vakcinom gde će dodatno da utišaju NS5 protein, možda i da odradi posao:
http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/zika-vaccine-just-got-one-step-closer-to-reality-116052000162_1.html

a ono što meni ekstremno smeta je što se opet ponavlja ista priča kao i sa ebolom: čim se beli čovek oseti ugroženim, odmah se angažuje na izradi nečega od čega su nebeli krajevi sveta morali da pate sve do momenta dok se beli čovek nije osetio ugroženim (i upotrebio pare i tehnologiju da svoj problem reši). 
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #18 on: 15-06-2016, 08:14:06 »
evo da imamo i ovaj big al odličan rivju:
http://cmr.asm.org/content/29/3/659.full.pdf+html

Quote
SUMMARY
The rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its potential association with thousands of suspected cases of microcephaly  in  Brazil  and  higher  rates  of  Guillain-Barré  syndrome meet the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, as stated by the World Health Organization in February 2016. Two months later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that the current available evidence supports the existence of a causal relationship between prenatal  Zika  virus  infection  and  microcephaly  and  other  serious brain anomalies. Microcephaly can be caused by several factors, and its clinical course and prognosis are difficult to predict. Other pathogens with proven teratogenicity have been identified long before the current ZIKV epidemic. Despite the growing number of cases with maternal signs of infection and/or presence of ZIKV in tissues of affected newborns or fetuses, it is currently difficult to assess the magnitude of increase of microcephaly prevalence in
Brazil, as well as the role of other factors in the development of congenital  neurological  conditions.  Meanwhile,  health  agencies and medical organizations have issued cautious guidelines advising health care practitioners and expectant couples traveling to, returning from, or living in affected areas. Analogous to dengue virus (DENV) epidemics, ZIKV has the potential to become endemic in all countries infested by Aedes mosquitoes, while new mutations could impact viral replication in humans, leading to increased virulence and consequently heightened chances of viral transmission  to  additional  naive  mosquito  vectors.  Studies  are urgently needed to answer the questions surrounding ZIKV and its role in congenital neurological conditions.
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #19 on: 06-07-2016, 12:12:46 »
vakcina je izgleda gotova stvar, pre neki dan izašao rad u nature gde su ljudi pokazali da i single doza pruža odgovorajuću zaštitu:
http://www.nature.com.ez.srv.meduniwien.ac.at/nature/journal/vaap/ncurrent/full/nature18952.html

i to čak bez nekih specijalnih adjuvansa (supstance koje pojačavaju imunski odgovor protiv željenog antigena) pošto i stari dobri alum (svi smo ga primili u npr. tetanus/difterija/veliki kašalj vakcini) radi posao. ne moramo čak ni da se kerefekiramo sa DNK plazmid tehnološkim zajebancijama pošto je sam virus (i to inaktivisan) dovoljan da se napravi efikasna vakcina pošto je pokazano da antitela protiv glikoproteina na površini virusa direktno koreliraju sa zaštitom (crvene tačkice):





naravno, odmah se uključio sanofi pasteur pošto sad valja efikasno odraditi pretkliničke i kliničke studije, safety, tolerability, imunogenost, pa sve to ponoviti sa GMP materijalom.
u svakom slučaju, tamo negde 2018. najranije, dobićemo (verovatno prilično jeftinu) vakcinu.
not bad at all.
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Mica Milovanovic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #20 on: 06-07-2016, 12:21:05 »
U suštini, svaka vakcina je delovanje protiv Boga, jer da je Bog hteo da imamo zaštitu protiv Zike on bi čoveku stvorio prirodni imunitet. Paster je zlo koje treba na vreme saseći i sprečiti njegovo pogubno dejstvo na čovečanstvo. Mogao bih još dosta toga da dodam, ali ne bih želeo da kvarim ove idilične trenutke na forumu.
Mica

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #21 on: 06-07-2016, 12:29:54 »
držmo se ipak horoskopa: all we need is love :lol:
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Mica Milovanovic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #22 on: 06-07-2016, 12:34:02 »
Mica

дејан

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Re: Зика
« Reply #23 on: 06-07-2016, 12:38:38 »
срам вас било, не умете ни квалитетно да тролујете...мислим...гоца лазаревић, па то је данас класика...
...barcode never lies
FLA

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #24 on: 06-07-2016, 12:40:53 »
to!

ne znam baš dal ćeš uspeti da šazamuješ al naručujemo ovo kod mesara milana next time uz opasnost da će me taj ceo narativ rasplakati.

edit: дејан објаснио
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Mica Milovanovic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #25 on: 06-07-2016, 12:47:39 »
Ja, bre, dejane mislim sasvim ozbiljno...  :)
A što se tiče mesara Milana... ruke gore!
Mica

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #26 on: 08-08-2016, 07:52:24 »
Genetically modified mosquitoes released in Cayman Islands



Quote
GEORGE TOWN, Cayman Islands — The first wave of genetically modified mosquitoes were released Wednesday in the Cayman Islands as part of a new effort to control the insect that spreads Zika and other viruses, officials in the British Island territory said.

Genetically altered male mosquitoes, which don't bite but are expected to mate with females to produce offspring that die before reaching adulthood, were released in the West Bay area of Grand Cayman Island, according to a joint statement from the Cayman Islands Mosquito Research and Control Unit and British biotech firm Oxitec.

The mosquitoes will be released over nine months in an area known to be a hot spot for the Aedes aegypti species, which are not native to the Cayman Islands and are the main vector for Zika as well as other viruses, including chikingunya and dengue.

The project had been scheduled in June but the release was postponed first by a delay in getting an occupancy permit for the lab in which mosquitoes are bred and then by a court challenge from opponents who argued that the government had not provided sufficient information about potential risks or adequately studied other alternatives. A judge ruled Tuesday that the effort could proceed.

Oxitec has deployed its mosquitoes to fight Zika in Brazil following initial trials there and previously conducted tests in the Cayman Islands and Panama. Oxitec and officials in the Florida Keys have proposed testing there as well and are awaiting U.S. regulatory approval.

Hiperhik

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Re: Зика
« Reply #27 on: 08-08-2016, 09:48:20 »
What could possibly go wrong..


 :roll:

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #28 on: 08-08-2016, 10:44:35 »
meni prvo pada na pamet butterfly effect :)
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.


Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #30 on: 02-09-2016, 07:52:07 »
Novi udar za Theranos:


FDA finds flaws in Theranos’ Zika tests

Quote
This past week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated testing for the Zika virus at all U.S. blood centers. That juices demand for Zika-testing technology, but one company that isn’t welcome to provide it yet is Theranos.
The beleaguered blood analysis startup has run afoul of the FDA, yet again, The Wall Street Journal reports.
Specifically, regulators found that in developing and testing a new Zika-diagnostic technology, Theranos failed to use proper patient safety protocols, the type approved by an institutional review board.
Such protocols are critical in ensuring the ethical treatment of patients involved in studies, and their safety.
Zika causes problems like fever, or a rash, in most people, but an infection during pregnancy can lead to birth defects, including microcephaly, or incomplete brain development.
The blood-borne virus is typically caused by mosquito bites but also can be sexually transmitted.
Theranos is clearly eager to regain its footing in the massive blood diagnostics market and get new products out that meet the FDA’s standards.
The company is still reeling after revelations that its core technology, which promised to quickly process a full range of lab tests on a single drop of blood, was not as-advertised.
Last month, regulators banned Theranos founder Elizabeth Holmes from operating a blood testing lab. And Walgreens, Theranos’ biggest partner, severed ties with the company.
Meanwhile, competitors like Genalyte, backed by Khosla Ventures, NOWDiagnostics and Altona Diagnostics are moving ahead, apparently without running afoul of regulatory requirements.
Altona, a German company founded in 2007, sought, and won, “emergency use authorization” for its Zika-testing technology recently, and struck a business partnership that makes it nationally available via LabCorp.
Theranos had sought the same FDA authorization, but voluntarily withdrew its request once regulators called the startup out, this time, on the safety protocols issue.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #31 on: 02-09-2016, 12:12:49 »
ali zar je neko očekivao da će biti "as advertised"?

na stranu zika, testovi za hlamidiju i HPV su takođe na jadnom nivou, lažno negativnih više nego pozitivnih. meni i dalje fascinantno kako i dalje postoje lekari kojima to nije jasno.
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #32 on: 03-09-2016, 12:50:58 »
lep članak odakle smo krenuli i gde smo sada:

Quote
Annals of Medicine August 22, 2016 Issue
The Race for a Zika Vaccine
In the throes of an epidemic, researchers investigate how to inoculate against the disease.
By Siddhartha Mukherjee

On a Saturday morning in April of 2014, Nenad Macesic, a thirty-one-year-old doctor-in-training, received an urgent phone call from the emergency room of Austin Hospital, just outside Melbourne, Australia. Lean and taut, with a swirl of dark hair, Macesic resembles an aspiring urban d.j. In fact, by night he spun electronica in clubs around Melbourne; by day he was a fellow in infectious diseases. The call concerned a woman in her late forties who had come to the hospital complaining of a fever, headaches, and an unusual rash...

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/22/the-race-for-a-zika-vaccine
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #33 on: 08-09-2016, 07:44:00 »
US beekeepers fear for livelihoods as anti-Zika toxin kills 2.5m bees



Quote
Huddled around their hives, beekeepers around the south-eastern US fear a new threat to their livelihood: a fine mist beaded with neurotoxin, sprayed from the sky by officials at war with mosquitos that carry the Zika virus.


 With the number of confirmed cases continuing to rise and peak winter tourism season two months away, businesses and hotels worry about losing visitors
Earlier this week, South Carolina beekeepers found millions of dead honey bees carpeting their apiaries, killed by an insecticide. Video posted by a beekeeper to Facebook showed thousands of dead insects heaped around hives, while a few survivors struggled to move the bodies of fellow bees.
“This is what’s left of Flowertown Bees,” a despondent keeper says in the video. Company co-owner Juanita Stanley told the Associated Press her farm looked “like it’s been nuked” and estimated 2.5 million bees were killed.
In another Facebook post, South Carolina hobbyist Andrew Macke wrote that he had lost “thousands upon thousands of bees” and that the spraying had devastated his business. “Have we lost our mind,” he wrote, “spraying poison from the sky?”

Around the US, bees and other pollinators contribute an estimated $29bn to farm income. Clemson University’s department of pesticide regulation is investigating the incident.
The program head, Dr Mike Weyman, said that though South Carolina has strict rules about protecting pollinators, county officials were using the neurotoxin, Naled, under a clause exempting them in a “clear and public health crisis”.
More than three dozen people have tested positive for Zika in South Carolina, Weyman said, and officials have made it a priority to prevent local transmissions through the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

“We don’t want one of those mosquitos having a blood meal on an individual we’ve already determined was positive,” Weyman said. “We know beyond a shadow of a doubt that [Zika] is up and running in Florida. If it gets in the mosquito population ... you’re playing catch-up.”
South Carolina’s protocol for Zika infections is to alert local officials of a carrier’s residence, which they “consider a ground zero”, Weyman said. Local authorities then target the local mosquitos in a 200-yard radius, in this case with spray.
Flowertown Bees was listed on local records but not in the state’s voluntary registry of pollinators, according to Weyman. “We know where the big ones are,” he said, “but as you can see this was a fairly large operation and almost right smack dab in the spray path.”     
If regulation allowed some spraying that would kill half of your livestock overnight, how would you recover?
 
      Despite the investigation into what went wrong, the killing has beekeepers worried about what might happen next.
“Everyone that I’ve spoken to has major concerns about the effect” of insecticides, said Jennifer Holmes, vice-president of the Florida State Beekeepers Association and the co-owner of a company with about 300 colonies north of West Palm Beach.
Comparing bees to cows or other pillars of agriculture, she said: “If there was a regulation that allowed some spraying that would kill half of your livestock overnight, how would recover your livelihood?”
Holmes has spent the last week working with beekeepers and state and county officials. The keepers, she said, fear “not just the immediate die-offs, but possible genetic die-offs or sterility” for bees that survive the first sprays.
“We understand the serious threat of possible disease,” she said, “but we also have to maintain our agricultural livelihood.”
A Louisiana beekeeper, who requested anonymity because of work with county officials, added another set of concerns: careless mixture and application of chemicals, mismanagement and long-term imbalance in the ecosystem.
“In order to ‘fix’ the problem,” the keeper said, “it will all have to begin with re-establishing healthy soil that will nourish a healthy plant population that will nourish healthy populations, whether it be the honeybee or a deer.
“Chemical application of any sort creates an imbalance from the ground up, even if a simple mosquito is the target.”


Experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and independent universities say Naled is far safer than other chemicals. It breaks down rapidly and, in the very low doses at which it is prescribed, should not pose a risk to humans.
“In Louisiana, we use these products quite frequently to reduce mosquitos, but we don’t see many nontarget effects, because the doses are really small,” said Dr Kirsten Healy, a public health entomologist at Louisiana State University.
“A lot of people don’t realize that we always have the environment in mind. We try to have products that have the lowest possible impact.”
Even the mosquitos targeted “quickly bounce back”, she said. Healy recommended a multi-pronged approach: aerial and ground sprays along with removal of the trash cans, bird feeders and other containers where water pools and mosquitos breed.
Aerial sprays threaten other pollinators. Dennis Olle, director of conservation programs for the North American Butterfly Association, noted the effect of chaotic ocean winds near his office in Miami. “It’s aerial bombing without any sense of being able to lay the chemical down on the target,” he said.     
It kills everything. There’s no question it is highly, highly deleterious to butterflies and other arthropods
 
      Olle conceded that that he was not a scientist – he is an attorney – but described a 2015 Florida International University study that found Naled application was uneven and harmful to butterflies.
“It kills everything,” he said. “There’s no question that it is highly, highly deleterious to butterflies and other arthropods, even mammals in high enough doses.”
He agreed that door-to-door removal of breeding objects and hand spraying were effective techniques against mosquitos, but worried about repeated low doses of chemicals to both pollinators and his children.
“If they’re killing every mosquito, as they claim, everything else needs to be worried too,” he said. “That’s not rocket science, that’s common sense.”
Olle’s fears have sympathizers in Florida and Puerto Rico, where there have been, respectively, 35 and 13,791 mosquito infections of the Zika virus. Earlier this summer on Puerto Rico, doctors rallied against Naled when the CDC made a last-ditch plea to start spraying. Governor Alejandro García Padilla rejected the proposal in July, citing concerns over possible side effects on humans and other animals.
Puerto Rico was also the site of some of what limited Naled-mosquito research has been performed in the last 30 years. Dr Duane Gubler, a professor at Duke Medical School and an expert in infectious diseases, led that research and found that Naled had mixed results.
“It’s unpredictable,” Gubler said. “We did the whole city of San Juan and it appeared to be somewhat effective in some areas but not others.”


Aedes aegypti mosquitos, Gubler said, were especially difficult targets since they breed inside and under houses, in buckets, tires, puddles or any container with stagnant water.
“There’s some data from Florida that suggests it can be effective where Aedes aegypti mosquitos are primarily outdoor breeders,” he said, “but from my data, it was spotty.”
Like Healy, Gubler recommended a mix of techniques – targeting adults and larvae through habitats and sprays and a partnership between citizens and agencies. “It’s near impossible for any government agency to control all of the mosquitos,” he said.
“It’s a matter of weighing the benefits versus the risks,” he added, noting the critical place of bees, especially, in keeping crops growing.
“If you have to make a decision on whether it protects, say, your pregnant wife from being exposed versus killing a few butterflies, I suspect in most people’s minds it’s probably worth the risk.”

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #34 on: 20-12-2016, 09:00:12 »
Pa... bar ćemo miševe moći da spasemo...


  Human Zika Antibodies Prevent Infection in Mice


Quote
Chinese researchers have identified broadly neutralizing human antibodies from a Zika patient that protected mice against infection with the mosquito-borne illness.
The substances are part of a growing arsenal of antibody-related treatments to fight the disease, which causes severe birth defects in babies. The most serious of these defects is microcephaly, in which children are born with a small head and brain that cause severe disabilities.
No antibody treatments have yet received regulatory approval, say experts.
Virus is the target
Unlike other Zika-neutralizing antibodies that have been isolated from human patients, the newly-discovered antibodies only target the virus.
Other human antibodies in development reportedly recognize the closely-related Zika and dengue viruses, increasing the risk of unwanted side effects.
In particular, experts say other antibody treatments could make a dengue infection worse in regions that are endemic for both diseases, should people become infected with both viruses and are treated for Zika.
Researchers say the specificity of the Zika antibodies would avoid such cross-reactivity and side effects.


WHO declared health emergency
More than 80,000 people became infected with Zika in 69 countries and regions worldwide beginning in 2015. Before it was quelled, the World Health Organization declared the Zika virus a public health emergency, saying there was an urgent need for the development of treatments and preventative strategies.
Chinese researchers identified a total of 13 monoclonal antibodies in the blood of a patient who had been infected with Zika and returned to China from Venezuela.
Two antibodies look promising
Two of the antibodies, called Z23 and Z3L1, are thought to thwart infection by targeting sites on on the virus' outer envelope protein, hindering the pathogen's ability to enter cells.
The study was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
Researchers say more study is needed to understand specifically how Z23 and Z3L1 offer protection against Zika.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #35 on: 20-12-2016, 12:57:40 »
ništa od terapije neutralizirajućim antitelima, videli smo gde smo došli s HIV-om.
plus, antitela znaju da pokrenu procese koji nisu prijatni po organizam, a koliko vidim, u ovoj studiji se nisu bavili i tim aspektom. no, ajd, kažu da im je to u planu pa da im verujemo. :lol:
takođe, ovo su miševi, translacija na humani sistem je daleka budućnost.
naravno, uvek možemo da koristimo medikamente protiv komaraca, posebno ovih u novembru i decembru. :lol: :lol:
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #36 on: 20-12-2016, 13:01:56 »
Jasno je da ćeš ti to da kažeš, ti si poznati ubica miševa.

Ali, da, ovi pošteno kažu da im treba još rada da vide ima li ovo smisla da se koristi i kako sve to ide.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #37 on: 20-12-2016, 13:06:07 »
ma oni prvo moraju da skoče sa miša na humanizovanog miša, pa redom.
a autan rulz. :lol:
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #38 on: 20-12-2016, 13:11:06 »
Ali ovde je potencijalno zanimljivo jer koristiš ljucka antitela da skočiš na miša, tj. sprečiš infekciju kod njih, ergo, možda je skok sa miša na čoveka bliži nego što se na prvi pogled čini.*

A Autan je korisna stvar, ali Zika se, čini mi se da to piše i na ovom topiku, dokumentovano prenosi i seksualnim kontaktom a tu nema pomoći od Autana.











*kucam ovo potpuno svestan da ne znam ništa o imunologiji

scallop

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Re: Зика
« Reply #39 on: 20-12-2016, 13:19:54 »
Nepoznavanje imunologije, ni bilo čega drugog, nikad te nije te sprečilo. Ja se utronjam kad me nešto zbuni.
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #40 on: 20-12-2016, 13:25:56 »
I ja bih da je ovo neka situacija u kojoj od mog nekog postupka nešto zavisi. Srećom nije, ovo je situacija u kojoj mi bez znanja možemo da bezbedno bacakamo unaokolo upite, komentare itd. i da čekamo da nas neko sa znanjem uputi. To je ta magija internet-foruma.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #41 on: 20-12-2016, 13:27:08 »
na humanizovanom mišu bi morali da dokažu da ova antitela ne dovode do svih tih, antitelima posredovanih, nus-efekata koji znaju da budu gadni. premda se i to da prevazići određenim genetskim manipulacijama.

što se tiče seksualnog kontakta, da, al procenat inficiranih je daleko manji. takođe, mi još uvek veze nemamo koliko dugo se zika zadržava u spermi ili vaginalnim tečnostima. mogao bi esej o tome.


što se tiče (ne)poznavanja imunologije, ovaj topik na forumu znaka sagite se zove prirodne nauke. na forumu smo i pokušavamo da iskomuniciramo ono što nas zanima. zdrav razum i dobar smisao za humor je jedino što nam je potrebno. :lol: :lol:
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #42 on: 20-12-2016, 13:27:58 »
meho, ti si moj blizanac!  xrofl xremyb
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #43 on: 20-12-2016, 13:44:34 »
Da, ja sam taj kingovski Dark Half  :lol:

Što se imunologije tiče, potpuno ništa ne znam, to je ljudski priznati, ali je zanimljivo da se čita.

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #44 on: 20-12-2016, 13:51:06 »
pa mehmete, sad još impliciraš da sam liječeni alkoholičar? đe će ti duša?  :cry: :lol:
it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Зика
« Reply #45 on: 20-12-2016, 14:11:45 »
Nije to nikakva sramota, svako ima svoje demone sa kojima se bori. Nekima su ti demoni u serijalu video igara Persona, a nekima u flaši. Cela Sagita je uz tebe, sestrice!

lilit

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Re: Зика
« Reply #46 on: 20-12-2016, 14:16:17 »
idi bre...




it's useful to understand the inside mechanisms of this montypythonesque play.

Pizzobatto

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Re: Зика
« Reply #47 on: 21-12-2016, 02:40:05 »
Zadnje vrijeme došlo kad se trujemo autanom da ne zakačimo ziku. I seks ćemo voljeti i rado ga se sjećati!

Better a witty fool than a foolish wit