Author Topic: AIDS vakcina  (Read 28762 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

crippled_avenger

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 19.350
    • http://dobanevinosti.blogspot.com
AIDS vakcina
« on: 21-09-2007, 23:35:57 »
Merck's experimental AIDS vaccine fails

By LINDA A. JOHNSON


TRENTON, N.J. - A promising experimental vaccine to prevent the AIDS virus has failed in a crucial experiment, with volunteers becoming infected with HIV anyway, leading the drug developer to halt the study.

Merck & Co. said Friday that it is ending enrollment and vaccination of volunteers participating in the international study, which is partly funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Officials at Merck told The Associated Press that 24 of 741 volunteers who got the vaccine in one segment of the trial later become infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. In a comparison group of volunteers who got dummy shots, 21 of 762 participants also became infected with HIV.

"It's very disappointing news," said Keith Gottesdiener, head of Merck's clinical infectious disease and vaccine research group. "A major effort to develop a vaccine for HIV really did not deliver on the promise."

The study volunteers were all free of HIV at the start of the experiment. But they were at high risk for getting HIV: most were homosexual men or female sex workers. They were all repeatedly counseled about how to reduce their risk of HIV infections, including use of condoms, according to Merck.

In a statement, the NIH said a data safety monitoring board, reviewing interim results, found the vaccine cannot be shown to prevent HIV infection or limit severity of the disease "in those who become infected with HIV as a result of their own behaviors that exposed them to the virus."

The Merck vaccine was the first major test of a new strategy to prevent HIV infection. The first wave of attempts to develop a vaccine tried to stimulate antibodies against the virus, but that didn't work.

The new effort — and one being tried in most other current research — is aimed at making the body produce more of a crucial immune cell called killer T-cells. The goal is to simultaneously "train" those cells, like an army, to quickly recognize and destroy the AIDS virus when it enters cells in the bloodstream.

Merck and the HIV Vaccine Trials Network, an international collaboration of researchers and institutions, co-sponsored the study. The Merck vaccine was the farthest along of several in development, and this was the first large-scale test of it.

The experiment, called STEP, began in December 2004 and had enrolled 3,000 volunteers in Australia, Brazil, Canada, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Peru, Puerto Rico and the United States. It aimed to determine if the vaccine — a shot made from a weakened cold virus that included bits of three HIV genes — could prevent HIV infection, or reduce the amount of HIV in the blood of infected people, or both.

___

On the Net: http://www.merck.com
Nema potrebe da zalis me, mene je vec sram
Nema potrebe da hvalis me, dobro ja to znam

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #1 on: 11-04-2011, 21:11:57 »
nema veze s vakcinom, al da ne otvaram novi topik. hiv, transplantacija...zanimljivo: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/11/us/11hiv.html
Some things you have to do yourself.

scallop

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 26.789
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #2 on: 11-04-2011, 21:52:17 »
Šta je, curo? Nije plauzibilno? Jel' dolaziš u ponedeljak?
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #3 on: 11-04-2011, 21:57:42 »
pročita li ti tekst koji postavih? :lol:

dolazim, of course, al u little bosnu ne idem! dva jelena il tri sesira il četiri plauzibilna vernika istrazivača, that is the question. :lol:
Some things you have to do yourself.

scallop

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 26.789
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #4 on: 11-04-2011, 22:05:55 »
pročita li ti tekst koji postavih? :lol:

dolazim, of course, al u little bosnu ne idem! dva jelena il tri sesira il četiri plauzibilna vernika istrazivača, that is the question. :lol:

Ni slučajno. Nema više mesta u tintari. Prosipa se i dok teturam po kući, žena dohvati usisivač i gotovo. Recycle bin.

Dogovorili smo se: Boban određuje temu za ponedeljak.
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #5 on: 06-06-2011, 12:18:54 »
First man ‘functionally cured’ of HIV

Quote
Since HIV was discovered 30 years ago this week, 30 million people have died from the disease, and it continues to spread at the rate of 7,000 people per day globally, the UN says.

There's not much good news when it comes to this devastating virus. But that is perhaps why the story of the man scientists call the "Berlin patient" is so remarkable and has generated so much excitement among the HIV advocacy community.

Timothy Ray Brown suffered from both leukemia and HIV when he received a bone marrow stem cell transplant in Berlin, Germany in 2007. The transplant came from a man who was immune to HIV, which scientists say about 1 percent of Caucasians are. (According to San Francisco's CBS affiliate, the trait may be passed down from ancestors who became immune to the plague centuries ago. This Wired story says it was more likely passed down from people who became immune to a smallpox-like disease.)


What happened next has stunned the dozens of scientists who are closely monitoring Brown: His HIV went away.

"He has no replicating virus and he isn't taking any medication. And he will now probably never have any problems with HIV," his doctor Gero Huetter told Reuters. Brown now lives in the Bay Area, and suffers from some mild neurological difficulties after the operation. "It makes me very happy," he says of the incredible cure.

The development of anti-retroviral drugs in the 1990s was the first sign of hope in the epidemic, transforming the disease from a sudden killer to a more manageable illness that could be lived with for decades. But still, the miraculous cocktail of drugs is expensive, costing $13 billion a year in developing countries alone, according to Reuters. That figure is expected to triple in 20 years--raising the worry that more sick people will not be able to afford treatment.

Although Brown's story is remarkable, scientists were quick to point out that bone marrow transplants can be fatal, and there's no way Brown's treatment could be applied to the 33.3 million people around the world living with HIV. The discovery does encourage "cure research," according to Dr. Jay Levy, who co-discovered HIV thirty years ago, something that many people did not even think was possible years ago.


scallop

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 26.789
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #6 on: 06-06-2011, 12:25:46 »
Ako ljudi počnu sami da se izlečuju (he!), kako će nadoknaditi tih 11 milijardi? Ti Kavkazijaci su gadna sorta.
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #7 on: 06-06-2011, 12:34:58 »
nažalost, 99% onih koji bi bili podvrgnuti ovom tretmanu, umrli bi od samog tretmana.  :(
ovom tipu su leukociti (i ostale loze) praktično uništeni i sreća je da tokom tog procesa nije umro od najobičnije prehlade. na stranu što je sam postupak abnormalno skup i što bi bio dostupan samo onima s mnogo para.
no, ovo je dobra eksperimentalna potvrda onog što su naučnici pretpostavljali decenijama.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Ygg

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 2.281
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #8 on: 02-12-2011, 10:33:41 »
Revolucionarna terapija pobijedila HIV

Poznato je da se HIV ponaša neuobičajeno za viruse – umjesto da izbjegava obrambeni sustav, on ga napada. Znanstvenici su stoga u novom istraživanju odlučili pronaći terapiju koja će također kršiti pravila, u kojoj će se borba voditi bez obrambenog sustava - iz mišićnog tkiva. Stručnjaci tvrde da se metoda pokazala vrlo uspješnom.

Testiranja ovog revolucionarnog pristupa, predstavljena u novom broju časopisa Nature, pokazala su da tzv. humanizirani miševi, s ljudskim obrambenim sustavom, ostaju zdravi čak i kada im se ubrizgaju doze virusa 100 puta veće od smrtonosnih. Konvencionalna cjepiva funkcioniraju tako da se tijelo izlaže sigurnim verzijama ili dijelovima patogena koji jačaju obrambeni sustav za borbu protiv budućih infekcija. Međutim, takav pristup za sada nije dao značajan uspjeh uglavnom zbog toga što HIV oslabljuje stanice imunološkog sustava.
 
 U novom istraživanju tim stručnjaka s California Institute of Technology u Pasadeni napravio je dramatičan zaokret u razmišljanju. Naime, voditelj studije David Baltimore i njegovi kolege odlučili su potpuno ignorirati obrambeni sustav umjesto da ga jačaju. Njihov pristup temelji se dijelom na cijepljenju, a dijelom na genskoj terapiji koji zajedno mišiće pretvaraju u tvornice što stvaraju moćna antitijela protiv HIV-a. Budući da se mišići ne nalaze na meti HIV-a, nastavljaju stvarati antitijela čak i nakon snažne infekcije opasnim virusom. Zbog toga je ova terapija uspješnija od poznatih u kojima se obrambeni sustav potiče da stvara antitijela.
 
 'Mi stvaramo sličan efekt kao cijepljenje, međutim, nikada ne pozivamo obrambeni sustav da odradi posao', rekao je Alejandro Balazs iz Caltecha.
 
 Tim je opremio bezopasne adeno viruse prehlade (AAV) genima koji stvaraju moćna antitijela protiv HIV-a. Potom ih je upotrijebio kako bi nožne mišiće miševa zarazio genima koji lansiraju antitijela.
 
 'Ovdje je ključna ideja da se tijelo opremi vlastitom tvornicom koja će stvarati antitijela protiv HIV-a', rekao je Baltimore.
 
 Miševi su nastavili stvarati antitijela cijeli život i ostali su zdravi unatoč svim naporima istraživača da ih zaraze HIV-om.
 
 'Očekivali smo da pri određenim dozama HIV-a antitijela neće uspjeti zaštititi miševe, međutim, do infekcije nije došlo čak ni kada smo im dali 100 puta više HIV-a nego što bi bilo potrebno da se zarazi sedam od osam miševa', rekao je Balazs.
 
 Budući da su pokusni miševi bili opremljeni ljudskim obrambenim sustavom, znanstvenici očekuju da bi terapija trebala biti učinkovita i kod ljudi. Klinička istraživanja na ljudima mogla bi započeti kroz godinu ili dvije. Zanimljivo je također da je Caltechov tim koristio antitijela sa širokim spektrom neutralizacije koja su se pokazala učinkovitim protiv 90 posto svih poznatih sojeva HIV-a. Ona su 2009. izolirana iz organizama ljudi zaraženih HIV-om.

http://www.tportal.hr/scitech/znanost/162833/Revolucionarna-terapija-pobijedila-HIV.html
"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #9 on: 02-12-2011, 12:04:13 »
WTF? Juče čitam zašto još uvek nemamo vakcinu protiv HIVa a sad ovo? A i zvuči pogrešno na više nivoa :/
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #10 on: 01-06-2012, 09:57:06 »
Imamo li topik Lilit, reaguj?
 
Hm, možda i imamo, ali mrzi me da tražim. U svakom slučaju, evo malo stvarnog horora:
 
 Chagas: Is tropical disease really the new AIDS? 
Quote

Chagas, a tropical disease spread by insects, is causing some fresh concern following an editorial—published earlier this week in a medical journal—that called it "the new AIDS of the Americas."
More than 8 million people have been infected by Chagas, most of them in Latin and Central America. But more than 300,000 live in the United States.
The editorial, published by the Public Library of Science's Neglected Tropical Diseases, said the spread of the disease is reminiscent of the early years of HIV.
"There are a number of striking similarities between people living with Chagas disease and people living with HIV/AIDS," the authors wrote, "particularly for those with HIV/AIDS who contracted the disease in the first two decades of the HIV/AIDS epidemic."
[Related: U.S. relief program prevented 741,000 HIV/AIDS deaths in Africa]
Both diseases disproportionately affect people living in poverty, both are chronic conditions requiring prolonged, expensive treatment, and as with patients in the first two decades of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, "most patients with Chagas disease do not have access to health care facilities."
Unlike HIV, Chagas is not a sexually-transmitted disease: it's "caused by parasites transmitted to humans by blood-sucking insects," as the New York Times put it.
"It likes to bite you on the face," CNN reported. "It's called the kissing bug. When it ingests your blood, it excretes the parasite at the same time. When you wake up and scratch the itch, the parasite moves into the wound and you're infected."

"Gaaah," Cassie Murdoch wrote on Jezebel.com, summing up the sentiment of everyone who read the journal's report.
[Related: Coming soon--an over-the-counter HIV test]
Chagas, also known as American trypanosomiasis, kills about 20,000 people per year, the journal said.
And while just 20 percent of those infected with Chagas develop a life-threatening form of the disease, Chagas is "hard or impossible to cure," the Times reports:
 
The disease can be transmitted from mother to child or by blood transfusion. About a quarter of its victims eventually will develop enlarged hearts or intestines, which can fail or burst, causing sudden death. Treatment involves harsh drugs taken for up to three months and works only if the disease is caught early.
"The problem is once the heart symptoms start, which is the most dreaded complication—the Chagas cardiomyopathy—the medicines no longer work very well," Dr. Peter Hotez, a researcher at Baylor College of Medicine and one of the editorial's authors, told CNN. "Problem No. 2: the medicines are extremely toxic."
And 11 percent of pregnant women in Latin America are infected with Chagas, the journal said.
 

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #11 on: 01-06-2012, 10:18:25 »
GAAAAH  :-P
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #12 on: 01-06-2012, 13:25:15 »
Stvarni horor?   :shock:

Ja naravno imam dva miliona zamerki na nacin kako je predstavljen Chagas, mislim, i clanak u Njujork tajmsu, pa cak i u PLOSu (iako mi se javlja da ce oni da pisu neki projekat za koji ce da traze pare, pa im stoga treba ovaj rad). Kao da je Chagas sad nesto za sta se ne zna vise od 100 godina i kao da se razlikuje od ostalih shitova koji pogadjaju kontinente na kojima nema previse belih supremista.
U sustini, Chagas izaziva parazit koji se zove Tripanosoma cruzi, kao sto malariju izaziva neki od cetiri Plasmodiuma, i tu bi paralele vec mogle da se izvlace.
Od Chagasa se lecis, godisnja terapija za americke turiste koji vole da se setkaju po siromasnim zemljama je reda velicine 1100 $ i to kad si u akutnoj fazi. Onda uletis u hronicnu fazu u kojoj mozes da budes vise decenija, a kad ostaris i imunski sistem krene da propusta ejlijene, tad se aktivira i tripanozoma.
Svetu bi bilo bolje da pare usmeri na poboljsanje zivota u Africi, Juznoj Americi, odredjenim delovima Azije, nego sto trosi na naoruzanje & slicne pikanterije, al sad ja zvucim ko mladi majmun. :x

U stvari, najveci problem koji imam s tekstom je imunoloske prirode i odnosi se na skrnavljenje moci koju poseduje HIV. Tripanozoma mu nije ni do kolena.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #13 on: 01-06-2012, 13:28:05 »
E, pa zato smo ovo kačili ovde, da čujemo tvoje mišljenje!!!!!!!!!!!11
 
Jer, Yahoo nam je stvorio utisak da se ovo ne može tretirati.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #14 on: 01-06-2012, 13:43:18 »
Pa ono sto je bitno je da krenes s lecenjem cim dobijes visoku temperaturu. Imam kolegu u zgradi koji je fasovao tripanozomu, a bavi se malarijom. Al dobro, oni su uzimali uzorke u Bangladesu ako se dobro secam, i sreca je sto je on sam lekar i imao je medikamente sa sobom, pa je odmah mogao da ih primeni. Problem je sto taj lek, benznidazol, nije dostupan, ali ti ljudi nemaju vodu, a da ne pricamo o lekovima.
Ova moja Chlamydia trachomatis, od koje je 8 miliona ljudi ireverzibilno slepo, a oko 84 miliona zarazeno, napada one kojima je voda luksuz, a da ne pominjem sapun. No, posto toga nema u Europe & USA, nema ni znacajnih sredstava ulozenih u projekte vezane za tu problematiku. Srecom, posto imamo i STD koju izaziva ista ta hlamidija (samo drugi serovari), a na koju Ameri i Evropljani nisu imuni  :mrgreen: , poslednjih godina imamo i razvoj u tom smeru.
Tako da, moram da zakljucim da bi ta tvoja firma morala mnogo vise da se potrudi umesto da se bavi palamudom.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #15 on: 01-06-2012, 13:44:07 »
a ovaj tekst koji je ygg kacio i koji sam ja nekako promasila je pojednostavljen do besvesti, al o tome drugi put.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #16 on: 01-06-2012, 13:48:15 »
Tako da, moram da zakljucim da bi ta tvoja firma morala mnogo vise da se potrudi umesto da se bavi palamudom.

Oh, ali ti znaš da moja firma misli da na svetu postoje samo dve bolesti: AIDS i Tuberkuloza. I priznaju i malariju u Africi, mada mrka pogleda. Kad vidim te silne HIV i TB related programe po Evropi, kojima se Crveni krstovi hvale, loše mi je.  :cry:

Barbarin

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 2.647
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #17 on: 01-06-2012, 13:55:21 »
Kako da kažem HIV je stara vest, treba ljude plašiti sa nečim "novim", i jel uzeti im pare.

Zanimljiva stavka iz teksta mi je: ujete te taj zaraženi insekt, i tek ako se počešeš postaneš i ti zaražen, to mi malo nije jasno, al ajd. I koji je to insekt ako nije komarac.

Jel ima neki updejt na yggov tekst?
Jeremy Clarkson:
"After an overnight flight back to London, I find myself wondering once again if babies should travel with the baggage"

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #18 on: 01-06-2012, 13:59:33 »
pa da...
iako, sumnjam da ce u skorije vreme doci do profilakticke vakcine protiv obe bolesti koje pominjes. patogeni su skoro pa savrseni, za efikasan fajt - vakcina ce morati biti mukozna a ne parenteralna, a mukozni imunitet je, nazalost, do pre jedne decenije bio u zapecku posto je tesko proci mukozu i dobiti zastitu umesto tolerance. s druge strane, i strategija WHO nije da nema opravdanja. pogledaj cifre za aids i tuberkulozu, uporedi ih sa ciframa za malariju ili trahomu ili chagas, kros-cekiraj sa epidemioloskim studijama gde cega ima, pa vidis kuda to ide...zvucim ko paranoik, al bar je mnogo lepa ova imunologija.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #19 on: 01-06-2012, 14:04:19 »

Zanimljiva stavka iz teksta mi je: ujete te taj zaraženi insekt, i tek ako se počešeš postaneš i ti zaražen, to mi malo nije jasno, al ajd. I koji je to insekt ako nije komarac.

Jel ima neki updejt na yggov tekst?

Ovo je bubica: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triatominae
Joj, kako bi bilo lepo da imam talenta za pisanje, pa da se bacim na SF.  :cry: :cry:

Ima dosta apdejta na yggov tekst, al em sam:
1. i dan danas fascinirana HIVom kao "pojavom" pa bi pisanje potrajalo
2. lenja do besvesti
3. imam tonu posla nad glavom,

ostavicu to za neki drugi dan.

Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #20 on: 01-06-2012, 14:09:56 »
pa da...
iako, sumnjam da ce u skorije vreme doci do profilakticke vakcine protiv obe bolesti koje pominjes. patogeni su skoro pa savrseni, za efikasan fajt - vakcina ce morati biti mukozna a ne parenteralna, a mukozni imunitet je, nazalost, do pre jedne decenije bio u zapecku posto je tesko proci mukozu i dobiti zastitu umesto tolerance. s druge strane, i strategija WHO nije da nema opravdanja. pogledaj cifre za aids i tuberkulozu, uporedi ih sa ciframa za malariju ili trahomu ili chagas, kros-cekiraj sa epidemioloskim studijama gde cega ima, pa vidis kuda to ide...zvucim ko paranoik, al bar je mnogo lepa ova imunologija.

Ma ja pola ovoga što si napisala ni ne razumem, samo kažem da je ludački da se Crveni krst bavi bolestima koje u evropskim društvima pogađaju tek po nekoliko stotina ljudi na godišnjem nivou i njima se uspelije bave specijalizovane organizacije.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #21 on: 01-06-2012, 14:11:20 »
pa da. to je i moja poenta.  :cry:
Some things you have to do yourself.

scallop

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 26.789
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #22 on: 01-06-2012, 14:11:48 »
Taj chagas smo gledali i u jednoj epizodi kanadske serije Resurrection (or what?). Lilit bolje komentariše svoju problematiku nego priče. :mrgreen: :mrgreen:
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #23 on: 01-06-2012, 23:05:34 »
stvarno?  :?

jos uvek sam na poslu i bice dobro ako izadjem pre jutra. pa ti vidi.  :cry: :cry: :cry:
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #24 on: 25-07-2012, 10:02:08 »
Za HIV još nema definitivnog odgovora, ali lek za Hepatitis C je na pomolu:
 
 Nanoparticle Completely Eradicates Hepatitis C Virus  
Quote

Researchers at the University of Florida (UF) have developed a nanoparticle that has shown 100 percent effectiveness in eradicating the hepatitis C virus in laboratory testing.
The nanoparticle, dubbed a nanozyme, consists of a backbone made from gold nanoparticles and a surface with two biological components. One biological component is an enzyme that attacks and destroys the mRNA, which provides the recipe for duplicating the protein that causes the disease. The other biological part is the navigator, if you will. It is a DNA oligonucleotide that identifies the disease-related protein and sends the enzyme on course to destroy it.
Y. Charles Cao, a UF associate professor of chemistry, and Dr. Chen Liu, a professor of pathology at the UF College of Medicine published their research online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ("Nanoparticle-based artificial RNA silencing machinery for antiviral therapy").
The basis of the work is mimicking the biological process of RNA interference, which researchers in the past have used effectively in the laboratory for treating HIV. In the UF research the nanoparticle mimics the function of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates the RNA interference process.
Current hepatitis C treatments do attack the replication process of the virus but they are not entirely effective and only help about 50 percent of the patients treated with them. Cao and Liu along with their team wanted to see if they could improve upon that percentage. The researchers claim that their treatment (in cell culture and mice) led to a near 100 percent eradication of the hepatitis C virus without bringing on any side effects caused by the immune system attacking the treatment.
Of course, this is a long way from becoming a treatment anytime soon. A major caveat is that the use of nanotreatments for the targeting and destroying of abnormal cells like cancer cells is always problematic since those cells are “still us” as George Whitesides noted some time back.  It’s always a bit of a tricky business to make sure that nanoparticles are targeting those biological processes within us that we want stopped and not the ones we want to keep.
Further complicating this particular line of research is some of the terminology that is part of the press release. They have decided to use the term “nanorobots” to describe the nanoparticles, apparently because that can really excite the general public about what might otherwise be a fairly niche story.  That’s fine, I suppose. Whatever manages to get the public interested in what is genuinely ground breaking research. The problem is that it creates confusion in some terribly misguided people who are convinced that we are about to be overrun by ‘nanobots’ that will render the planet into nothing but “gray goo”.   Can’t we just retire the term “nano robots” for the sake of human life?
 

HAL

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 909
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #25 on: 25-07-2012, 10:27:41 »
Све су то паламуђевине и копрцање у плићаку.
Постоји лек за све, али здрав и прав човек није профитабилан за експлоатацију, исто као што ни паметан и интелигентан није пожељан јер би олако препознао и растурио све манипулације и лажи којима нас обмањују. Ми смо за њих не човек, већ људски ресурс.

mac

  • 3
  • Posts: 10.287
    • http://www.facebook.com/mihajlo.cvetanovic
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #26 on: 25-07-2012, 10:29:40 »
Ne bih se iznenadio da ovi dobiju Nobelovu nagradu za te nanočestice.

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #27 on: 25-07-2012, 11:14:33 »
Све су то паламуђевине и копрцање у плићаку.
Постоји лек за све, али здрав и прав човек није профитабилан за експлоатацију, исто као што ни паметан и интелигентан није пожељан јер би олако препознао и растурио све манипулације и лажи којима нас обмањују. Ми смо за њих не човек, већ људски ресурс.

JEste, što ne leči batina, leči ilovača.
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #28 on: 26-08-2012, 09:14:26 »
Kad smo već kod vakcina evo malo propagande onih koji stavljaju živu u vakcine i pokušavaju sve da nas pobiju:
Intentionally Unvaccinated Students Putting Other Children at Risk
Quote

Parents nervous about the safety of vaccinations for their children may be causing a new problem: the comeback of their grandparents' childhood diseases, reports a new study from the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing.
Despite the successes of childhood immunizations, wrote Penn Nursing researcher Alison M. Buttenheim, PhD, MBA, in the American Journal of Public Health, controversy over their safety has resulted in an increasing number of parents refusing to have their children vaccinated and obtaining legally binding personal belief exemptions against vaccinations for their children.
People who cannot get immunizations because of allergies or compromised immune systems rely on "herd immunity," the protection they get from a disease when the rest of the population is immunized or immune, explained Dr. Buttenheim. If a high number of children go intentionally unvaccinated because of personal belief exemptions, herd immunity is compromised, she said, giving a disease the chance to spread rapidly.
Dr. Buttenheim and colleagues studied data that more than 7,000 public and private schools report to the California Department of Public Health each year, for some 500,000 kindergarteners. They found that the number of children with one or more personal belief exemptions increased 25 percent in the state from 2008 to 2010. They also found that exempt children tended to aggregate within individual schools, and that a growing number of kindergarteners -- both vaccinated and exempt -- were attending schools with potentially risky personal belief exemption rates.
"Vaccines are one of the great public health achievements of the last couple of centuries," Dr. Buttenheim said. "They protect us from diseases that used to routinely kill hundreds of thousands of children in the United States and still kill hundreds of thousands globally. It's not just important for a child to be vaccinated, it's important at a population level to have high rates of coverage."
In 2008, a measles outbreak spread in California. It was traced to a child whose parents had decided not to vaccinate him. He brought the disease back from Europe, infecting other children at his doctor's office and his classmates. The boy's parents had signed a personal belief exemption affidavit stating that some or all of the immunizations were against their beliefs, thereby allowing their son to go unvaccinated before entering kindergarten. California is one of 20 states that allow such exemptions.
Nationally, because of generally widespread vaccination coverage among children, vaccine-preventable childhood diseases that once caused substantial disease burdens and death in the United States remain rare occurrences. Measles once infected four million people and killed 4,000 of them each year, mostly young children. With high measles vaccine coverage over several decades, endemic measles was eliminated in the United States as of 2000. The current routine childhood immunization schedule is estimated to prevent 42,000 deaths and 20 million cases of disease and to save $14 billion in direct medical costs per U.S. birth cohort.
Dr. Buttenheim plans to test several interventions at the school level, including new incentive structures for schools to increase adherence rates. She believes the school nurse can play a key role in encouraging parents to get children immunized. "We know everyone is heavily influenced by social norms and pressure," she explained, and school nurses can set the expectation that children get fully vaccinated. "I think the school nurse can really act as a gatekeeper here, and reset the norm in favor of immunization."

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #29 on: 26-08-2012, 09:29:42 »
ja bih one roditelje koji odbiju da vakcinisu dete protiv tetanusa, difterije, velikog kaslja i poliomijelitisa po kratkom postupku strpala u zatvor. toleranca mi je minus nula kad je ovo gore u pitanju.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #30 on: 26-08-2012, 09:33:16 »
Dobro, naravno da ćeš ti to da pričaš kad si deo problema umesto da budeš deo rešenja.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #31 on: 26-08-2012, 09:47:34 »
ima i toga, ne negiram.

problem s ljudima in general je što uvak mora biti crno ili belo. dozvoljavam da možemo da palamudimo da li deca treba da prime vakcinu protiv varičele, pa čak mogu da prihvatim i argumentaciju protiv MMR vakcine iako mislim da je sumanuta (celu ujdurmu je pokrenuo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Wakefield ), al ako znas da umires od 1ng/kg tetanus toxina a pokazano je da je vakcina sigurna posto se daje skoro ceo vek bez posebnih nus-efekata, onda je zatvor jedino rešenje koje imam javno da predložim. druga rešenja bi bila preekstremna za današnji stupanj ljudske evolucije. :lol:
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #32 on: 26-08-2012, 09:49:24 »
Ma šali se čika Meho, zna se šta ja mislim o vakcinama. Što višije to boljije.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #33 on: 26-08-2012, 10:01:12 »
sad mi još nacrtaj da se šališ.
ja prihvatih tvoju šalu, dodah malo ironije i duha :lol:, al rekoh, meho to razume i nema potrebe za smajlijima. kad ono avaj!!!!!
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #34 on: 28-08-2012, 10:33:11 »
Nema veze sa AIDSom niti sa vakcinom, ali interesantna ideja o dizajniranju appa za smartfounove koji pomaže da se pomoću cloud-based softvera lakše dijagnosticira upala pluća (u zemljama u razvoju) i time prevenira umiranje od izlečivih bolesti kao posledica neblagovremene dijagnoze:
 
 StethoCloud – The $20 Stethoscope Attachment For Smartphones To Diagnose Pneumonia 
Quote

What do you get when you combine smartphones, cloud computing, and digital medicine? A new era of healthcare that is bringing powerful technological innovations rapidly to the world.
For example, take StethoCloud, a cloud-based service that turns a Windows smartphone into a digital stethoscope. Created by four students from the University of Melbourne, the goal of the team is to enable early diagnosis of an overlooked childhood killer: pneumonia. Using a specially designed microphone called a “stethomic” that plugs into the smartphone’s audio jack and an app that guides users through the proper method for listening to a patient’s breathing, early testing shows promising at accurately detecting the disease.
And it’s expected to cost only $20.
Amazingly, the project only started at the beginning of this year with the first prototype built in February in just two weeks. With backgrounds in both computer science and medicine in developing nations, the team put together the app, cloud service using Windows Azure, and a polished presentation. By April, they were ready with their pitch and their efforts paid off: StethoCloud won the Australian Final of the 2012 Imagine Cup, a student technology competition hosted by Microsoft, in May, and the team advanced to the second round of the worldwide finals.
 
StethoCloud works like many apps: collect data from specific sources, process these data with algorithms, and interpret the results according to an established standard. In this case, the data is collected with the mic at specific locations on the patient’s chest and back and uploaded to a server to filter out noise and analyze the data. Using standards defined by the World Health Organization for pneumonia, the data are interpreted and sent back to the phone with recommendations for treatment, if necessary.
Currently, the group is working with the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne to develop research protocols for field testing. Additionally, they’ve sent the stethomics to hospitals in Ghana, Malaysia, and Mozambique. By next year, the team hopes the device will be in use in areas that need it most.
It can’t come soon enough. According to the World Health Organization, nearly one in five childhood deaths worldwide is caused by pneumonia, each year killing an estimated 1.4 million children under the age of 5, more than any other disease. As an ailment, pneumonia is complicated by the fact that it is caused by a host of culprits, like viruses, bacteria, and fungi, as well as substances like dust and gases. So diagnosis comes after the onset of symptoms, which often must become severe before the condition is recognized as life threatening. Hence, early detection has the potential to save many lives.
Speaking to GOOD, one of the team members, Dr. Andrew Lin, said, ”We’re deeply passionate about pneumonia, about saving children.” He added, “This is what you want to do when you’re little. You want to be that one that makes a difference, and that’s what we’re setting out to do.”
To learn more about the people behind StethoCloud, check out this interview:
 

 
In the big picture, StethoCloud is a prime example of the technological revolution coming to healthcare. Just consider what this project does for stethoscopes, in general. A good stethoscope used in clinics easily costs a few hundred dollars, and while digital stethoscopes exist, they are just as expensive. Additionally, they are standalone equipment, meaning that stethoscopes are used for auscultation only. On the other hand, the StethoCloud team estimates that their mic will be a tenth of that cost. Plus, it’s a small add-on peripheral, just like CellScope’s device for diagnosing ear infections, and helps the smartphone inch closer and closer to being a universal healthcare device.
There’s no need to worry about smartphone adoption in developing countries either. As TechCrunch recently reported, it is estimated that in 5 years at least 40 percent of Africans alone will already own smartphones. Because of the app’s algorithms that process breathing patterns, StethoCloud could be used by someone with even minimal medical training, as well. With more field testing and improvements in the design, the algorithms are sure to become more accurate and robust.
The lesson here is striking but simple: fast and furious technological advances in healthcare are coming from across the globe, and in a few short years, healthcare just won’t be the same.
 

Meni ovo zvuči superoptimistično jer naravno imam prilične rezerve spram cloud based tehnologije a pogotovo kada su u pitanju stvari od kojih može da zavisi život. Ali jeste interesantno, potencijalno revolucionarno.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #35 on: 30-08-2012, 10:56:39 »
Američka pedijatrijska akademija od nedavno zvanično podržava obrezivanje muške dece ističući pozitivne zdravstvene efekte. Dakle, nisu Židovi i muslimani blesavi!!!!!!!!!1
 
http://www.nature.com/news/doctors-back-circumcision-1.11296
 
Quote

Expectant parents face many anxieties in preparing for a child. For those who have a son, there is an extra complication: deciding whether to keep his foreskin or have it snipped off.
On 27 August, a report by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes for the first time that, overall, boys will be healthier if circumcised1. The report says that although the choice is ultimately up to parents, medical insurance should pay for the procedure. The recommendation, coming from such an influential body, could boost US circumcision rates, which, at 55%, are already higher than much of the developed world (see ‘Cuts by country’). “This time around, we could say that the medical benefits outweigh the risks of the procedure,” says Douglas Diekema, a paediatrician and ethicist at the University of Washington, Seattle, who served on the circumcision task force for the AAP, headquartered in Elk Grove Village, Illinois.
The recommendation is also sure to stir up debate. The practice of circumcision cuts deeper than the body, tapping into religious rituals and cultural identities. What is a harmless snip to some signifies mutilation to others. And in the developing world, many see it as an essential life-saving measure. Condoms are more effective at preventing disease, but are not used consistently.
Diekema says that the task force’s reviews of the latest medical evidence allowed it to make stronger policy recommendations than it did in 1999 and 2005. Perhaps the most powerful evidence in favour of circumcision comes from randomized controlled trials in South Africa2, Kenya3 and Uganda4. These found that, for men who have sex with women, circumcision reduced the risk of infection with HIV. (No protection was observed for men who have sex with men.) The South African and Ugandan trials also found that circumcision reduced infection rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes. The World Health Organization has already made circumcision part of its HIV-prevention strategy in sub-Saharan Africa, with a goal to circumcise 20 million men by 2015.
  Expand SOURCE: WHO The AAP found that, in addition to preventing sexually transmitted infections, circumcision could reduce the rates of urinary tract infections and penile cancer, probably because the foreskin harbours infectious microbes as well as the immune cells targeted by HIV. The most common complications of circumcision — oozing, bleeding and infection — occur in 2% or fewer circumcisions and are easily treated. More serious complications are exceedingly rare, says Diekema. The task force also found no strong evidence that circumcised babies grew up with more urinary difficulties or sexual problems.
Gert van Dijk, an ethicist at the Royal Dutch Medical Association in Utrecht, the Netherlands, thinks that the AAP has underestimated the potential harm of circumcision. He says that it should only be performed when men are old enough to give consent, and disagrees with the AAP that circumcisions are simplest and safest when performed on infants. The very idea of asking whether circumcisions are beneficial is strange to Europeans, van Dijk says. “The integrity of the body is an important thing. We would never amputate a healthy part of a child.”
   Van Dijk notes that the benefits cited in the African studies do not apply to the Netherlands, where HIV transmission is rare and occurs mainly through sex between men and through needle-sharing among drug users. Rowena Hitchcock, president of the British Association of Paediatric Urologists, says that she is disappointed with the AAP policy because it recommends an “irreversible, mutilating surgery”. She says that her organization is considering a review of its current policy, which recommends circumcision for infants who are at severe risk of urinary tract infections, because the evidence of medical benefit is not definitive.
The number of circumcisions required in order for the wider population to avoid disease may explain some of the national differences in policies and rates. Most men are unlikely to get the infections that circumcisions protect against, so they will not see a direct benefit.
But the cumulative benefits can add up. An analysis published last week by researchers at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, found that the cost of performing circumcisions and treating complications would be tiny in comparison to the savings from the resulting lower rates of HIV, HPV, herpes and urinary tract infections, as well as from lower rates of bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis in women5. Each circumcision that is not performed costs the US health-care system US$313, the researchers estimate.
However, national customs may have a bigger role than economic decisions, says David Gollaher, a medical historian at the California Healthcare Institute in La Jolla, who has studied the history of circumcision. Insurance cover sends a signal that a procedure is medically appropriate, he says, which would reinforce existing inclinations in the United States towards action and intervention. “We do a lot more surgeries than anyone else, so circumcision fits into the pattern of doing more,” he says.
 

Ghoul

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 33.137
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #36 on: 04-09-2012, 17:08:48 »
A virus that kills cancer: the cure that's waiting in the cold

Sitting in a refrigerator in a Swedish laboratory is what promises to be a cheap and effective cancer treatment. So why are the trials to bring it to market not going ahead?

nije lek za sidu no za rak, al valjda neće neko zameriti:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9508895/A-virus-that-kills-cancer-the-cure-thats-waiting-in-the-coldc.html

Lord Kufer

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 5.102
    • Poems and Essays
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #37 on: 04-09-2012, 17:10:42 »
Lečenje od raka je čitava industrija i to im se mnogo više isplati nego da se rak zaista izleči.

mac

  • 3
  • Posts: 10.287
    • http://www.facebook.com/mihajlo.cvetanovic
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #38 on: 04-09-2012, 17:20:44 »
Je li to onaj virus što posle mutira i pretvori ljude u bezumne kreature večito gladne ljudskog mesa?

pokojni Steva

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 8.040
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #39 on: 04-09-2012, 18:14:31 »
Je li to onaj virus što posle mutira i pretvori ljude u bezumne kreature večito gladne ljudskog mesa?


Bankare?
Jelte, jel' i kod vas petnaes' do pola dvanaes'?

Ghoul

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 33.137
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #40 on: 04-09-2012, 20:38:31 »
javlja mi se da se 'novinari' BLICA informišu na forumu ZNAKA SAGITE!

ili je možda SLUČAJNOST da je vest iz engleskog telegrafa, koja je kod njih objavljena 31. avgusta, u BLICU prepričana tek danas, i to 2-3 sata pošto sam ja ovde okačio link?

http://www.blic.rs/Vesti/Svet/341152/Virus-koji-ubija-rak-cami-u-frizideru-u-Svedskoj

mac

  • 3
  • Posts: 10.287
    • http://www.facebook.com/mihajlo.cvetanovic
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #41 on: 04-09-2012, 20:53:35 »
Ova informacija vredi da se prenese u Blicu.

Ghoul

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 33.137
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #42 on: 04-09-2012, 21:15:10 »
Ova informacija vredi da se prenese u Blicu.

da, ali to nije poenta.

poenta je da je neko tamo valjda plaćen da filtrira važne agencijske vesti i da prati važne svetske medije, a ne da mu ih sagita filtrira.
što ovo nisu objavili 31-og ili 01-og, nego malopre?

mac

  • 3
  • Posts: 10.287
    • http://www.facebook.com/mihajlo.cvetanovic
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #43 on: 04-09-2012, 21:47:54 »
Da li su druge kuće to pokrile kako teba? Ne bih rekao, jer da jesu onda bi i Blic to pokupio. Promaklo, šta da se radi.

Ghoul

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 33.137
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #44 on: 04-09-2012, 21:55:10 »
Promaklo, šta da se radi.

da, ali to nije poenta.

poenta je da su to što im je promaklo nadoknadili 3 sata pošto je link stavljen na sagitu.

mac

  • 3
  • Posts: 10.287
    • http://www.facebook.com/mihajlo.cvetanovic
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #45 on: 04-09-2012, 23:17:18 »
To jeste poenta tvog posta, a poenta mog posta je pitanje koliko je to zaista vredno ove frke. Preuzeli link sa Sagite, okej, i šta sad? Novinari preuzimaju vesti odasvud. Najbolje je ako je vest sveža, ali može da prođe i po neka vredna, a bajata. Vest zapravo i nije bajata ako niko nije čuo za nju. Vest je tada ipak nekakva vest.

Ghoul

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 33.137
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #46 on: 04-09-2012, 23:54:28 »
To jeste poenta tvog posta, a poenta mog posta je pitanje koliko je to zaista vredno ove frke. Preuzeli link sa Sagite, okej, i šta sad?

koje frke?
ja ne vidim nikakvu frku.
ti pričaš o jednom, ja o drugom - o tome da ovo nije ni prvi ni poslednji ovakav slučaj našeg vrlog istraživačkog novinarstva i sagite kao mesta odakle 'novinari' pecaju vesti i najave i tračeve.
dakle, nisam tražio nikakvu medalju niti orden, samo zapažam da se ovo prilično često dešava, to je sve, nema potrebe da dižeš frku... :roll:

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #47 on: 06-09-2012, 14:45:22 »
ako ovog gula ne skinete s ovog topika, naravno, samo zbog njegovog oftopika, nema sanse da vam odam nove secrets vezane za hiv i ostale bolescine koje smo kreirali ne bi li kontrolisali human race!

Some things you have to do yourself.

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #48 on: 07-09-2012, 13:26:57 »
kuku

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/08/here-it-comes-super-gonorrhea/260937/

Quote
Here It Comes: Super Gonorrhea :-/
By James Hamblin

Aug 9 2012, 2:35 PM ET 89 The CDC announced that we're down to our last effective antibiotic.

gonorrheaMAIN.jpg height=230
tonrulkens/Flickr
I just got out of a telebriefing with the CDC. The atmosphere was not a jovial one. The words "gonorrhea epidemic" were thrown around in ominous tones. No one was up for hanging out after.


Did you know gonorrhea can kill you? It can, and it's also tragically effective at making women infertile. According to her journals, my great aunt Mabel was "barren," and my grandmother always told me it was probably from gonorrhea. The only reason we don't hear about these awful complications more often -- and we instead think of it as a little oops of an infection ("Can I still drink on these antibiotics?" "Yes." "Cool.") -- is because we've been able to kill it early with relative ease.


But over the past decades, gonorrhea has been mowing down our antibiotics. If this was the Olympic 400 IM, gonorrhea would be the Ryan Lochte and our antibiotics would be the guy from Moldova.


The list of effective antibiotics has been dwindling as the bacteria became resistant, and now it's down to one. Five years ago, the CDC said fluoroquinolones were no longer effective, but oral cephalosporins were still a common/easy treatment. Now injected ceftriaxone is the only recommended effective drug we have left. And it has to be given along with either azithromycin or doxycycline.

CDCgontx.jpg height=225
CDC

So, yes, getting gonorrhea now means that you have to go in and get antibiotics through a needle. And then everyone with whom you've had sex in the last 60 days has to get tested, too.


Once gonorrhea becomes resistant to the last of our cephalosporin antibiotics -- "it's only a matter of time," according to Dr. Gail Bolan, Director of STD Prevention at the CDC in today's announcement -- we will have no treatment. Then when it gets into your bloodstream, it will be lethal.


I always have this sense that someone will figure it out before that time comes, but there is very little research and development going on right now in this area. Dr. Bolan mentioned one set of ongoing clinical trials.


Here is the full CDC Statement. Here is a gonorrhea FAQ that you can post on your Facebook wall. And apart from conducting high-level antibiotic research in your garage or home office, what else can you do?


First, only take antibiotics exactly as prescribed and directed (that's true for any infection). Finish the entire course of the prescription, even if you're feeling better. That will decrease the bacteria's ability to develop resistance.


Also, you can avoid getting gonorrhea. Condoms and regular testing are great, but the only way to definitely not get gonorrhea is to not have sex (with someone who has gonorrhea). I'm not saying this is a call for sex robots. That's not what I'm saying. But if it does lead to advancements in sex robot technology, well, so be it.


And don't not seek treatment because gonorrhea is still stigmatized and means you need an injection. The complications aren't worth it. Sixty-four million people get it every year; 700,000 in the United States alone. You're far from the only person who'll get it, and you'll be fine, just be smart and communicative. We're going to have to start talking a lot more about gonorrhea. Gonorrhea, gonorrhea, gonorrhea.

Dakle pamet u glavu! I sex robota da očistite posle upotrebe!
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #49 on: 07-09-2012, 14:43:54 »
da, da...lepo ja pricam, kondom u ruke ne zbog hiva vec zbog dobrih starih bolesti, al niko me ne slusa.

(btw, te mikrobe su sintetisali vanzemaljci!!! dok smo mi hiv!)
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #50 on: 09-11-2012, 10:57:26 »
Pošto stiže vreme da krenemo sa prepucavanjem oko toga koliko žive stavljaju u vakcine kojima će da kontrolišu naše misli, evo šta kaže Amerikanac u vezi najčešćih mitova vezanih za vakcinu protiv gripa:
 
 Flu Shot Myths, Busted 
Quote

We're in the thick of cold and flu season, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal flu shots prevented 5 million cases of influenza last year and helped keep 40,000 people out of the hospital in 2011. Still, more than half of the population of the United States avoids getting an influenza vaccine each year, usually because they're afraid that the flu shot itself will give them the flu.

Related: 7 Foods the Fight Cold and Flu

It's one of the biggest myths about the flu shot out there. "It's impossible to get the flu, and it's impossible to spread the flu" from the injection, Dr. Dennis Cunningham, an infectious disease specialist at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Ohio, told LiveScience.com

The confusion may come from the fact that some of the vaccine's side effects—low-grade fever, body aches, and soreness at the injection site—feel like flu-like symptoms. But, "the soreness is often caused by a person's immune system making protective antibodies to the killed viruses in the vaccine," the CDC says on its website. "You cannot get the flu from a flu shot."

Related: Do You Have a Cold, or the Flu?

Here are a few other flu-shot related myths:

Myth: Seasonal flu is annoying but harmless—it feels like a bad cold, that's all.

Truth: While both are respiratory illnesses, there are several key differences between the flu and a bad cold. If you have a sore throat and a runny or stuffy nose, it's likely that you have a common cold, not the flu. According to the CDC, Fever, headaches, body aches, extreme fatigue, severe congestion, and a dry cough are signs of influenza; the flu can also lead to pneumonia and bacterial infections. Also, while a cold may last a few days, the flu can leave you feeling miserable for weeks. "When you get the flu, you know it," Dr. Christine Hay, assistant professor at the University of Rochester Medical Center, told Web MD. "You feel like you've been hit by a Mack truck."

Related: Protecting your home from the flu

Myth: The flu shot gives you complete protection right away.

Truth: There are three different types of influenza—types A, B, and C—which are divided into several subtypes and strains (How many? The CDC will only say "many" and that "new strains of influenza viruses appear and replace older strains"). The seasonal flu shot protects against the three strains that researchers think will be dominant that year. It takes up to two weeks for your body to gain protection after being vaccinated so, if you're exposed to the virus shortly before getting vaccinated or while you're waiting for your immune system to ramp up, or if you encounter another strain of the virus after you've had your shot, you can still end up with the flu. "The vaccine isn't 100 percent effective, it's only about 50 to 70 percent effective," Philip Tierno, director of clinical microbiology and immunology at New York University Langone Medical Center, told ABC News. "But it will mollify the virus, and hopefully the person won't have a severe reaction."

Myth: You don't need the flu shot every year.

Truth: Dominant flu strains change, so researchers must reformulate the seasonal flu shot every year—which means that last year's shot may not protect you from this year's most-prevalent virus. "It's confusing, since the flu vaccine is different from most vaccines, which offer longer-lasting protection," Dr. William Schaffner, chairman of the department of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University's School of Medicine in Nashville, Tennessee, tells WebMD.com.

Myth: Only elderly people need the flu shot.

Truth: People who are 65 or older, pregnant, or have certain medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and chronic lung disease are at high risk for catching the flu. But healthy people who are at low risk still spend time around family members who are much more susceptible to the virus. If you have young children at home, or if you're a caregiver for anyone in a high-risk group, your getting the flu shot helps protect them as well.

Myth: The flu shot is safe for everyone.

Truth: Babies younger than 6 months old and people who have had Guillain-Barre Syndrome should not receive the seasonal flu shot. Neither should anyone who has ever had a severe allergic reaction to eggs (the virus for the vaccine is grown in chicken eggs) or who has had a severe reaction to a previous flu shot. Otherwise, the flu vaccine is safe for people age 6 months and older.

Myth: You can get the flu from a flu shot.

Truth: The flu shot is an inactivated vaccine, which means that the virus on it has been killed. It's enough to trigger your immune system to start making antibodies, but you can't get an actual infection. (The nasal spray version of the shot, contains a weakened form of the active virus, and while you can end up with some flu-like symptoms from it, it still won't give you the flu.)

Myth: If you've already had the flu, you don't need a flu shot.

Truth: "In any flu season, there's usually both Type A and Type B influenza in circulation," Dr. Trish M. Perl, assistant professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore, tells WebMD. Just because you've caught one type of the virus doesn't mean you're immune from the other. Getting the flu shot could stop you from suffering through a second round.

Myth: Flu shots protect against the stomach flu.

Truth: Those stomach bugs may feel flu-like, but gastroenteritis isn't related to the influenza virus. While seasonal flu can sometimes cause vomiting and diarrhea in children, it's very rare for adults, so the flu shot does not stop you from ending up with a "24-hour flu" or a "tummy bug."

Myth: Only doctors can administer flu shots.

Truth: You can safely get the flu vaccine in many drugstores (including Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart) and health clinics around the country, even without an appointment.

Myth: You shouldn't get the flu shot if you're already sick.

Truth: Check with your doctor first, but most experts agree that as long as you don't have a fever of more than 101 degrees, it's safe for you to get a flu shot even if you're sick.

Myth: If you make it to November without catching the flu, then you don't need the vaccine.

Truth: Flu season usually peaks in February, and flu vaccines are often still available in December and January. There's still time to minimize your chances of getting the flu this season. The CDC website, however, recommends that you get the seasonal shot as soon as it becomes available in your community, even as early as August.

 

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #51 on: 09-11-2012, 11:52:19 »
Međutim, ima novosti i o HIV/ AIDS vakcinisanju:
 
 Human trials for HIV/AIDS vaccine making steady progress 
Quote

The first and only preventative HIV vaccine based on a genetically modified killed whole-virushas been making steady progress in Phase I Clinical Trials in the United States and the interim results are being analyzed in preparation for the next steps. Developed by Dr. Chil-Yong Kang and his team at Western’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, with the support of Sumagen Canada, the vaccine (SAV001-H) holds tremendous promise for success in the final phases of clinical testing now that the first hurdle has been accomplished. It is the only HIV vaccine currently under development in Canada, and one of only a few in the world.
The first human applied clinical study (SAV CT 01) using a genetically modified killed whole-virusvaccine(SAV001-H) to evaluate its safety and tolerability was initiated in March 2012. This study is a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled study of killed whole HIV-1 vaccine (SAV001-H) following intramuscular (IM) administration. Infected men and women, 18-50 years of age, have been enrolled in this study and randomized into two treatment groups to administer killed whole HIV-1 vaccine (SAV001-H) or placebo.
Sumagen announced today the patient enrollment has progressed smoothly and there have been no adverse effects observed including local reactions, signs/symptoms and laboratory toxicities after SAV001-H injection in all enrolled patients to date. With these interim results, the SAV001-H has proven safety and tolerability in humans and given Sumagen confidence for the next clinical trials to prove its immunogenicity and efficacy evaluation.
In addition, the humoral immune responses, such as HIV-1 antibody formation against SAV001-H, are currently being analyzed. The interim data showed significant increase in the HIV-1 antibody formations after SAV001-H administration compared to the base line in some patients. Even though this study is a blinded study until completion, these results are encouraging for the possibility of the prophylactic potency of SAV001-H.
With these interim results, Sumagen is confident of the safety of SAV001-H and the potency of inducing immune responses in human trials.
“We have proven that there is no safety concern of SAV001-H in human administration and we are now prepared to take the next steps towards Phase II and Phase III clinical trials,” said Dr. Dong Joon Kim, a spokesperson for Sumagen Co. Ltd. “We are delighted to be one step closer to the first commercialized HIV vaccine.”
In future, the company will be looking for collaboration with multi-national biopharmaceutical companies for globalizing clinical trials and commercialization.
This Phase I clinical trial (SAV CT 01) was partially funded by Industrial Research Assistant Program of National Research Council Canada since January 2012.
HIV/AIDS has killed more than 28 million people worldwide, and more than 34 million people currently live with the virus infection. Since the virus was characterized in 1983, there have been numerous trials through pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions around the world to develop vaccines; however, no vaccine has been commercialized to date.
Other HIV vaccines evaluated through human clinical trials have focused on either one specific component of HIV as an antigen, genetic vaccine using recombinant DNA, or recombinant viruses carrying the HIV genes.
Kang’s vaccine is unique in that it uses a killed whole HIV-1, much like the killed whole virus vaccines for polio, influenza, rabies and hepatitis A. The HIV-1 is genetically engineered so it is non-pathogenic and can be produced in large quantities.
Through WORLDiscoveries, Western’s technology transfer office, Sumagen Canada has secured patents for the SAV001 vaccine in more than 70 countries, including the U.S., the European Union, China, India and South Korea. The vaccine has been manufactured at a bio-safety level 3 (BSL3) good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility in the United States.
Located in The Stiller Centre for Technology Commercialization in Western’s Research Park in London, Ontario, Sumagen Canada was established in 2008 specifically to manage and support clinical development of Kang’s vaccine. Sumagen Canada is a subsidiary of Sumagen Co. Ltd., a Korean-based pharmaceutical venture company.

 

scallop

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 26.789
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #53 on: 10-12-2012, 20:56:57 »
I za Mehana i za Scallopa: dream on.

1. To sto su dobili antitela ne znaci nista. Cak i da su protektivna, ne mogu da se bore protiv Hiv-a, tu nam treba celularni imunski odgovor, humoralni (antitela) radi kod npr. toksina, al ne znaci mnogo kad se boris protiv virusa ili intracelularnih bakterija.

2. Cak i da prevazidjemo citokinsku oluju i sve ostale tehnoloske zavrzlame, ostaje da je ovaj
vid terapije (individualizovana do perfekcije) em na ivici smrti invazivan (ok, ionako ce da umru), em nepriustiv sirokim narodnim masama.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #54 on: 22-01-2013, 20:57:38 »
Ponovo o gripu: naime, vakcine, reportedly izazivaju - narkolepsiju! Nisu dakle bez vraga bili oni koji su se bunili protiv vakcinacije.
 
Insight: Evidence grows for narcolepsy link to GSK swine flu shot
 
Quote
STOCKHOLM (Reuters) - Emelie is plagued by hallucinations and nightmares. When she wakes up, she's often paralyzed, unable to breathe properly or call for help. During the day she can barely stay awake, and often misses school or having fun with friends. She is only 14, but at times she has wondered if her life is worth living.
Emelie is one of around 800 children in Sweden and elsewhere in Europe who developed narcolepsy, an incurable sleep disorder, after being immunized with the Pandemrix H1N1 swine flu vaccine made by British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline in 2009.
Finland, Norway, Ireland and France have seen spikes in narcolepsy cases, too, and people familiar with the results of a soon-to-be-published study in Britain have told Reuters it will show a similar pattern in children there.
Their fate, coping with an illness that all but destroys normal life, is developing into what the health official who coordinated Sweden's vaccination campaign calls a "medical tragedy" that will demand rising scientific and medical attention.
Europe's drugs regulator has ruled Pandemrix should no longer be used in people aged under 20. The chief medical officer at GSK's vaccines division, Norman Begg, says his firm views the issue extremely seriously and is "absolutely committed to getting to the bottom of this", but adds there is not yet enough data or evidence to suggest a causal link.
Others - including Emmanuel Mignot, one of the world's leading experts on narcolepsy, who is being funded by GSK to investigate further - agree more research is needed but say the evidence is already clearly pointing in one direction.
"There's no doubt in my mind whatsoever that Pandemrix increased the occurrence of narcolepsy onset in children in some countries - and probably in most countries," says Mignot, a specialist in the sleep disorder at Stanford University in the United States.
30 MILLION RECEIVED PANDEMRIX
In total, the GSK shot was given to more than 30 million people in 47 countries during the 2009-2010 H1N1 swine flu pandemic. Because it contains an adjuvant, or booster, it was not used in the United States because drug regulators there are wary of adjuvanted vaccines.
GSK says 795 people across Europe have reported developing narcolepsy since the vaccine's use began in 2009.
Questions about how the narcolepsy cases are linked to Pandemrix, what the triggers and biological mechanisms might have been, and whether there might be a genetic susceptibility are currently the subject of deep scientific investigation.
But experts on all sides are wary. Rare adverse reactions can swiftly develop into "vaccine scares" that spiral out of proportion and cast what one of Europe's top flu experts calls a "long shadow" over public confidence in vaccines that control potential killers like measles and polio.
"No-one wants to be the next Wakefield," said Mignot, referring to the now discredited British doctor Andrew Wakefield who sparked a decades-long backlash against the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) shot with false claims of links to autism.
With the narcolepsy studies, there is no suggestion that the findings are the work of one rogue doctor.
Independent teams of scientists have published peer-reviewed studies from Sweden, Finland and Ireland showing the risk of developing narcolepsy after the 2009-2010 immunization campaign was between seven and 13 times higher for children who had Pandemrix than for their unvaccinated peers.
"We really do want to get to the bottom of this. It's not in anyone's interests if there is a safety issue that needs to be addressed," said GSK's Begg.
LIFE CHANGED
Emelie's parents, Charles and Marie Olsson, say she was a top student who loved playing the piano, taking tennis lessons, creating art and having fun with friends. But her life started to change in early 2010, a few months after she had Pandemrix. In the spring of 2010, they noticed she was often tired, needing to sleep when she came home from school.
But it wasn't until May, when she began collapsing at school, that it became clear something serious was happening.
As well as the life-limiting bouts of daytime sleepiness, narcolepsy brings nightmares, hallucinations, sleep paralysis and episodes of cataplexy - when strong emotions trigger a sudden and dramatic loss of muscle strength.
In Emelie's case, having fun is the emotional trigger. "I can't laugh or joke about with my friends anymore, because when I do I get cataplexies and collapse," she said in an interview at her home in the Swedish capital.
Narcolepsy is estimated to affect between 200 and 500 people per million and is a lifelong condition. It has no known cure and scientists don't really know what causes it. But they do know patients have a deficit of a brain neurotransmitter called orexin, also known as hypocretin, which regulates wakefulness.
Research has found that some people are born with a variant in a gene known as HLA that means they have low hypocretin, making them more susceptible to narcolepsy. Around 25 percent of Europeans are thought to have this genetic vulnerability.
When results of Emelie's hypocretin test came back in November last year, it showed she had 15 percent of the normal amount, typical of heavy narcolepsy with cataplexy.
The seriousness of her strange new illness has forced her to contemplate life far more than many other young teens: "In the beginning I didn't really want to live any more, but now I have learned to handle things better," she said.
TRIGGERS?
Scientists investigating these cases are looking in detail at Pandemrix's adjuvant, called AS03, for clues.
Some suggest AS03, or maybe its boosting effect, or even the H1N1 flu itself, may have triggered the onset of narcolepsy in those who have the susceptible HLA gene variant.
Angus Nicoll, a flu expert at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), says genes may well play a part, but don't tell the whole story.
"Yes, there's a genetic predisposition to this condition, but that alone cannot explain these cases," he said. "There was also something to do with receiving this specific vaccination. Whether it was the vaccine plus the genetic disposition alone or a third factor as well - like another infection - we simply do not know yet."
GSK is funding a study in Canada, where its adjuvanted vaccine Arepanrix, similar to Pandemrix, was used during the 2009-2010 pandemic. The study won't be completed until 2014, and some experts fear it may not shed much light since the vaccines were similar but not precisely the same.
It all leaves this investigation with far more questions than answers, and a lot more research ahead.
WAS IT WORTH IT?
In his glass-topped office building overlooking the Maria Magdalena church in Stockholm, Goran Stiernstedt, a doctor turned public health official, has spent many difficult hours going over what happened in his country during the swine flu pandemic, wondering if things should have been different.
"The big question is was it worth it? And retrospectively I have to say it was not," he told Reuters in an interview.
Being a wealthy country, Sweden was at the front of the queue for pandemic vaccines. It got Pandemrix from GSK almost as soon as it was available, and a nationwide campaign got uptake of the vaccine to 59 percent, meaning around 5 million people got the shot.
Stiernstedt, director for health and social care at the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, helped coordinate the vaccination campaign across Sweden's 21 regions.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says the 2009-2010 pandemic killed 18,500 people, although a study last year said that total might be up to 15 times higher.
While estimates vary, Stiernstedt says Sweden's mass vaccination saved between 30 and 60 people from swine flu death. Yet since the pandemic ended, more than 200 cases of narcolepsy have been reported in Sweden.
With hindsight, this risk-benefit balance is unacceptable. "This is a medical tragedy," he said. "Hundreds of young people have had their lives almost destroyed."
PANDEMICS ARE EMERGENCIES
Yet the problem with risk-benefit analyses is that they often look radically different when the world is facing a pandemic with the potential to wipe out millions than they do when it has emerged relatively unscathed from one, like H1N1, which turned out to be much milder than first feared.
David Salisbury, the British government's director of immunization, says "therein lies the risk, and the difficulty, of working in public health" when a viral emergency hits.
"In the event of a severe pandemic, the risk of death is far higher than the risk of narcolepsy," he told Reuters. "If we spent longer developing and testing the vaccine on very large numbers of people and waited to see whether any of them developed narcolepsy, much of the population might be dead."
Pandemrix was authorized by European drug regulators using a so-called "mock-up procedure" that allows a vaccine to be authorized ahead of a possible pandemic using another flu strain. In Pandemrix's case, the substitute was H5N1 bird flu.
When the WHO declared a pandemic, GSK replaced the mock-up's strain with the pandemic-causing H1N1 strain to form Pandemrix.
GSK says the final H1N1 version was tested in trials involving around 3,600 patients, including children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, before it was rolled out.
The ECDC's Nicoll says early warning systems that give a more accurate analysis of a flu strain's threat are the best way to minimize risks of this kind of tragedy happening in future.
Salisbury agrees, and says progress towards a universal flu vaccine - one that wouldn't need last-minute changes made when a new strain emerged - would cuts risks further.
"Ideally, we would have a better vaccine that would work against all strains of influenza and we wouldn't need to worry about this ever again," he said. "But that's a long way off."
With scientists facing years of investigation and research, Emelie just wants to make the best of her life.
She reluctantly accepts that to do so, she needs a cocktail of drugs to try to control the narcolepsy symptoms. The stimulant Ritalin and the sleeping pill Sobril are prescribed for Emelie's daytime sleepiness and night terrors. Then there's Prozac to try to stabilize her and limit her cataplexies.
"That's one of the things that makes me feel most uncomfortable," she explains. "Before I got this condition I didn't take any pills, and now I have to take lots - maybe for the rest of my life. It's not good to take so many medicines, especially when you know they have side effects."
(Reporting by Kate Kelland; Editing by Will Waterman)

Mme Chauchat

  • 8
  • 3
  • *
  • Posts: 4.761
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #55 on: 22-01-2013, 21:14:24 »
I ti si se uželeo Lilit, priznaj, Meho!

M.M

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 2.868
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #56 on: 22-01-2013, 21:30:16 »
Nije jedini.
Nijedan poraz nije konačan.
http://knjigeiknjige.blogspot.com/

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #57 on: 22-01-2013, 22:11:08 »
Uželeo? Zar je nekud otišla???

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #58 on: 24-01-2013, 00:55:41 »
U Düsseldorf al malopre se vratila!!! A pati i od narkolepsije! Sutra mozda detaljnije o ovoj Mehovoj zutoj stampi!
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #59 on: 19-02-2013, 16:09:53 »
nista od vakcine protiv HIV-a, al neki bar zanimljivo skreću pažnju na problemčiće.
poster sa novog zelanda, sa kongresa "on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance" održanog prošle nedelje gde se većina učesnika napalamudi vanredno.


Some things you have to do yourself.

....

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 13.197
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #60 on: 19-02-2013, 16:49:02 »
kako ruzan i neukusan imperijalisticki poster.  :x

Ygg

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 2.281
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #61 on: 04-03-2013, 02:20:26 »
Nije o vakcini, ali jeste o HIV-u!!!
Quote
The first documented case of a child being cured of HIV was announced today at 2013 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Atlanta, GA.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130303172640.htm
"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #62 on: 04-03-2013, 13:12:49 »
"cured of hiv" je malo premakretinški naslov, za ovo što je pokazano. roknuli su bebi staroj 30 sati full terapiju koja se daje odraslima i držali je na tome 18 meseci dok majka nije odustala od tretmana (pretpostavljam da je dete imalo milion side-effects, al lekari ne govore zašto se odustalo). 5 meseci kasnije odradili su standardne testove (za koje i sami znaju koliko mogu da budu nepouzdani kad se radi o negativnom rezultatu) i pokazali da ne mogu da detektuju ni virus niti antitela. međutim, našli su virusnu DNK i RKN, al to, kao, u "jedvadetektabilnom" obliku (sa postojećom tehnologijom).

jeste da je bebeći imunski sistem široko polje za igru što se tiče tretmana jer se ~90% formira do 6. meseca života, a dok nam timus ne atrofira tamo negde oko puberteta  (timus je organ koji "uči" T-limfocte šta je sopstveno, šta nije i još štošta, fascinantno zbilja kako to radi) još imamo šanse da "naučimo" kako da se izborimo i s nekom, ne baš standardnom, infekcijom, ali mislim da s ovakvim istupanjima treba biti oprezan iz razloga što je naučna zajednica prilično u dubiozi šta i kako sa hiv-om, teško da se igde odmaklo glede vakcine, tretman je uspešan u smislu da produžava i čini život normalnim, ali suštinskog pomaka nema.
zvučaću paranoidno, al malo me plaši da ovakve bombastične studije ne dovedu do lakog testiranja svega i svačega na bebama. majmuni su zaštićeni kao beli medvedi, treba da se oteliš dok dobiješ dozvolu etičkog komiteta da eksperimentišeš na njima, a ovaj slučaj govori da je doći do eksperimenta na bebama lakše nego što sam mislila da će ikad biti. roditelji su stvarno nužno zlo na ovoj planeti. što ne znači da se i sama ne bih odlučila na ovaj shit od terapije da mi saopšte na porođaju da sam hiv pozitivna a da nisam uzimala terapiju tokom trudnoće.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Mme Chauchat

  • 8
  • 3
  • *
  • Posts: 4.761
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #63 on: 04-03-2013, 14:16:37 »
"cured of hiv" je malo premakretinški naslov, za ovo što je pokazano. roknuli su bebi staroj 30 sati full terapiju koja se daje odraslima i držali je na tome 18 meseci
Šta se inače radi sa HIV pozitivnom novorođenčadi? Ozbiljno pitam jer nemam pojma, iskaz u ovom članku formulisan je otprilike kao da je ta terapija standardna procedura: "diagnosed with HIV at birth and immediately put on antiretroviral therapy", ne pominje se ni eksperimentalnost ni potreba za dobijanjem roditeljske dozvole.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #64 on: 04-03-2013, 14:56:09 »
kad je majka hiv pozitivna, detetu se 6-12 sati nakon rođenja daje niska doza leka koji se zove AZT. to je uobičajeni tretman, ali i za to ti treba pismena roditeljska dozvola.
stavljanje bebe stare 30 sati na full tretman (AIDS coctail - doza za odrasle) moralo je zahtevati specijalnu dozvolu.
sad vidim da ovo još nigde nije publikovano i da je glavni PR odrađen na kongresu koji je u toku. bilo bi zanimljivo videti sve te rezultate na jednom mestu, papir & statistika, pa tek onda izvlačiti zaključke. posebno one podatke kojima su potvrdili da je dete inficirano u startu.  :mrgreen:

čak i da prihvatimo da ovo radi kod tek novorođene dece (hiv još nije stigao da se iskaže u punom svetlu i zabode svoju zastavu), pokazano je da ne radi kod starije dece i odraslih, ali, OK da, drži virus pod kontrolom neko duže vreme. a i treba sačekati full report ovog JEDNOG slučaja.

možda zvučim ko skeptik, al ovo su opasni presedani koji će sutra ladno dovesti do "clinical trial phase 2 ili 3" tamo negde u africi, a to je ono što bi mi, jevtrice, da izbegnemo ako je ikako moguće.

Some things you have to do yourself.

scallop

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 26.789
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #65 on: 04-03-2013, 15:04:04 »
Tako to biva kad su majmuni pod zaštitom. :cry:
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

Mme Chauchat

  • 8
  • 3
  • *
  • Posts: 4.761
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #66 on: 04-03-2013, 15:39:05 »

možda zvučim ko skeptik, al ovo su opasni presedani koji će sutra ladno dovesti do "clinical trial phase 2 ili 3" tamo negde u africi, a to je ono što bi mi, jevtrice, da izbegnemo ako je ikako moguće.
:( Jasno.

Ygg

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 2.281
"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

Ygg

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 2.281
"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

Ghoul

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 33.137
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #69 on: 03-05-2013, 02:14:33 »
HIV cure expected 'within months,' Danish scientists say

By KATE STANTON, UPI.com

Published: May 1, 2013 at 10:39 PM

Could scientists be close to a cure for a disease that has killed more than 25 million people since 1981?

According to the Daily Telegraph, researchers at Denmark's Aarhus University Hospital believe they are "within months" of a breakthrough that could lead to an affordable cure for the millions of people living with the disease.

The scientists' technique involves flushing the HIV from "reservoirs" in human DNA to the surface of cells. With the help of a separate vaccine, the human body would then be able to kill the virus with its own immune system.

“I am almost certain that we will be successful in releasing the reservoirs of HIV," said Aarhus University research team member Dr Ole Søgaard, who remained optimistic but cautious about the potential results.

“The challenge will be getting the patients’ immune system to recognise the virus and destroy it. This depends on the strength and sensitivity of individual immune systems," he added.

So far, the technique has only been successful on human cells in a laboratory, but 15 patients with HIV are currently participating in trials funded by $2 million from the Danish Research Council.

The welcome news is part of a recent string of successes in HIV/AIDS research. In January, Australian scientists said they had discovered a strategy that could make the virus "self-destruct." In March, U.S. researchers at Johns Hopkins "functionally cured" a baby with HIV by pumping the infant with antivirals immediately after birth.

http://m.upi.com/story/UPI-3411367462376/

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #71 on: 24-10-2013, 09:26:24 »
Nije AIDS, ali je Dijabetes tip 1:

Finnish team makes diabetes vaccine breakthrough

Quote
A team working at Tampere University has discovered the virus that causes type 1 diabetes. The enterovirus penetrates the pancreas and destroys insulin-producing cells, eventually causing diabetes.
Researchers have looked at more than a hundred different strains of the virus and pinpointed five that could cause diabetes. They believe they could produce a vaccine against those strains.
”We have identified one virus type that carries the biggest risk,” said professor Heikki Hyöty. ”A vaccine could also protect against its close relatives, to give the best possible effect.”Ready to test on humansA similar enterovirus causes polio, which has been almost eradicated in many parts of the world thanks to vaccination programmes. A prototype diabetes vaccine has already been produced and tested on animals.
”We know that this vaccine is effective in mice,” noted Hyöty. ”It is important to test it in people, so that we can be sure that the vaccine prevents diabetes.”
Taking the vaccine through a clinical trial would cost some 700 million euros. Some funding is in place from the United States and from Europe, but more is required.
”Money is the biggest obstacle to testing in humans at the moment,” said Hyöty. ”The matter is of international interest, and people are interested in us. I’m optimistic that the funding will come.”
Tampere University has been co-operating with Turku and Oulu universities in the DIPP (Diabetes Prediction and Prevention) project.

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #72 on: 24-10-2013, 13:19:47 »
Čekbre otkad je dijabetes izazvan virusom? Ne znam za to...
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #73 on: 24-10-2013, 13:47:14 »
Ni ja, ali vidiš da prva rečenica kaže da je otkriveno da tip 1 izaziva virus. E, sad, Finci su ovo, pa mom zapadnocentričnom mozgu automatski ovo zvuči plauzibilnije od sličnih vesti koje povremeno vidimo iz nekakvih Kina i inih istočnih zemalja. Sigurno puka predrasuda, ali takav sam. Pratićemo šta se s ovim događa.

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #74 on: 24-10-2013, 13:58:40 »
Evo gledam talk za dijabetes t1 na mikipediji, i oni imaju samo ovo od Finaca i ne ubacuje im se još u članak.
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #75 on: 07-12-2013, 10:34:22 »
No no.
http://mobile.rawstory.com/therawstory/#!/entry/hiv-returns-to-two-men-doctors-hoped-were-cured-by,52a22e01025312186c997c99
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #76 on: 08-12-2013, 08:30:47 »
Nije AIDS, no su boginje, broj slučajeva u USA se triplirao, vele, jer zaraza stiže iz inozemstva a previše ljudi (tj. dece) nije vakcinisano. Hvala Dženi Mekarti:
 Measles Cases Triple in U.S., Vaccine Refusal Here and Elsewhere to Blame
 
Quote

Measles, one of the most communicable of all infectious diseases, is spiking in the United States, with three times as many cases as usual this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday. The spike is due to both foreign importations — infected travelers coming from places where measles is not under control — and local vulnerability: unvaccinated children and adults in the United States.
 
In a press briefing, the CDC’s director Dr. Thomas Frieden said that from January to November, there were 175 known cases of measles in the US, with 20 of those people having to be hospitalized. The agency would expect to see about 60 cases, he said. Those cases came from 52 separate travelers. Most of the time, the imported virus found only a few people to infect — but nine times, the imports caused large outbreaks, always in people who had not received the vaccine.
 
“It is not a failure of the vaccine,” Frieden said. “It’s a failure to vaccinate. Around 90 percent of the people who have had measles in this country were not vaccinated either because they refused, or were not vaccinated on time.”
 
 If 175 cases doesn’t sound like much, consider measles’ impact. It isn’t just an itchy rash; it can cause deafness and encephalitis, and miscarriage in pregnant women. Before the measles vaccine was achieved 50 years ago, the disease killed 2.6 million people around the world every year. Its cost to society is huge. A single importation of measles into Arizona in 2008, via an unvaccinated, infected Swiss tourist, caused a 14-person outbreak; compelled the Arizona Department of Health to track down and interview 8,321 people; caused seven Tucson hospitals to furlough staff members for a combined 15,120 work-hours; and forced two hospitals to spend $799,136 to contain the disease.
 
The story of that outbreak illuminates two important things about measles now. First, importations of the disease are increasing. Look at the trend line in this graphic published yesterday by CDC staff in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. That uptick on the right is entirely due to importations followed by local transmission:
 
The other important thing to consider is where the importations are coming from. We tend to think of diseases that cross our borders as something that originates in the developing world — but this time, it’s the industrialized world that is partly to blame. Dr. Samuel Katz, co-creator of the measles vaccine, spoke at the CDC’s press briefing yesterday. He said:
 
We’re not talking about measles being imported from Bangladesh and from India and from the resource-poor countries. Western Europe has had 25,000 cases of measles every year for the last three years… in great part due to vaccine hesitancy.

An editorial in JAMA Pediatrics underlined the vulnerability:
 
The greatest threat to the US vaccination program may now come from parents’ hesitancy to vaccinate their children. Although this so-called vaccine hesitancy has not become as widespread in the United States as it appears to have become in Europe, it is increasing. Many measles outbreaks can be traced to people refusing to be vaccinated … Even greater risk may come from parents who delay vaccinations rather than refusing them outright because a delayed vaccination may add more person-years of susceptibility than that due to refusing vaccination.

I wasn’t at the CDC’s briefing yesterday — I’m traveling, and listened in — but I imagine that being in the room must have been quite poignant. The measles vaccine is one of the triumphs of public health; Katz and his co-creators are believed to have saved the lives of 30 million children. Over 50 years, measles has been chased entirely out of the Western Hemisphere. Yet keeping it from becoming re-established, and eliminating it from the rest of the world, requires increasing vaccination at a time when so many are turning away. As Katz said yesterday — and perhaps it was my imagination, or a bad connection, but I thought I heard a touch of wistfulness:
 
It’s really nice to be worrying about 175 cases of measles. It’s a mark of progress. But it also shows how much further we have to go.


Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #77 on: 10-12-2013, 10:41:05 »
Interesantna priča o tome kako je leukemija izlečena "treniranjem" imunosistema pacijenta da se bori:

Killing cancer like the common cold

Quote
Nick Wilkins was diagnosed with leukemia when he was 4 years old, and when the cancer kept bouncing back, impervious to all the different treatments the doctors tried, his father sat him down for a talk. John Wilkins explained to Nick, who was by then 14, that doctors had tried chemotherapy, radiation, even a bone marrow transplant from his sister.
"I explained to him that we're running out of options," Wilkins remembers telling his son.
There was one possible treatment they could try: an experimental therapy at the University of Pennsylvania.
He asked his son if he understood what it would mean if this treatment didn't work.
"He understood he could die," Wilkins says. "He was very stoic."
A few months later, Nick traveled from his home in Virginia to Philadelphia to become a part of the experiment.
This new therapy was decidedly different from the treatments he'd received before: Instead of attacking his cancer with poisons like chemotherapy and radiation, the Philadelphia doctors taught Nick's own immune cells to become more adept at killing the cancer.
Two months later, he emerged cancer-free. It's been six months since Nick, now 15, received the personalized cell therapy, and doctors still can find no trace of leukemia in his system.
Trusting her intuition led to two cancer diagnoses
Twenty-one other young people received the same treatment at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 18 of them, like Nick, went into complete remission -- one of them has been disease-free for 20 months. The Penn doctors released their findings this weekend at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology.
"It gives us hope that this is a cure," Nick's father says. "They're really close. I think they're really onto something."
'A whole new realm of medicine '
At the conference, two other cancer centers -- Memorial Sloan-Kettering in New York and the National Cancer Institute -- will be announcing results with immunotherapies like the one Nick received. The results are promising, especially considering that the patients had no success with practically every other therapy.
"This is absolutely one of the more exciting advances I've seen in cancer therapy in the last 20 years," said Dr. David Porter, a hematologist and oncologist at Penn. "We've entered into a whole new realm of medicine."
In the therapy, doctors first remove the patient's T-cells, which play a crucial role in the immune system. They then reprogram the cells by transferring in new genes. Once infused back into the body, each modified cell multiplies to 10,000 cells. These "hunter" cells then track down and kill the cancer in a patient's body.
Essentially, researchers are trying to train Nick's body to fight off cancer in much the same way our bodies fight off the common cold.
Tumor Paint: Changing the way surgeons fight cancer
In addition to the pediatric patients, Penn scientists tried the therapy out in 37 adults with leukemia, and 12 went into complete remission. Eight more patients went into partial remission and saw some improvements in their disease.
The treatment does make patients have flulike symptoms for a short period of time -- Nick got so sick he ended up in the intensive care unit for a day -- but patients are spared some of the more severe and long-lasting side effects of extensive chemotherapy.
Penn will now work with other medical centers to test the therapy in more patients, and they plan to try the therapy out in other types of blood cancers and later in solid tumors.
A university press release says it has a licensing relationship with the pharmaceutical company Novartis and "received significant financial benefit" from the trial, and Porter and other inventors of the technology "have benefited financially and/or may benefit financially in the future."
Searching for one-in-a-million cancer cells
The big question is whether Nick's leukemia will come back.
Doctors are cautiously optimistic. The studies have only been going on since 2010, but so far relapse rates have been relatively low: of the 18 other pediatric patients who went into complete remission, only five have relapsed and of the 12 adults who went into complete remission, only one relapsed. Some of the adult patients have been cancer-free and without a relapse for more than three years and counting.
Relapses after this personalized cell therapy may be more promising than relapses after chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant, Porter explained.
First, doctors have been delighted to find the reengineered T-cells -- the ones that know how to hunt down and attack cancer -- are still alive in the patients' bodies after more than three years.
Stigma lingers for deadliest cancer
"The genetically modified T-cells have survived," Porter said. "They're still present and functional and have the ability to protect against recurrence."
Second, before declaring patients in remission, Penn doctors scoured especially hard for errant leukemia cells.
Traditionally, for the kind of leukemia Nick has, doctors can find one in 1,000 to one in 10,000 cancer cells. But Penn's technology could find one in 100,000 to one in a million cancer cells, and didn't find any in Nick or any of the patients who went into complete remission.
'It's not a fluke'
One of the best aspects of this new treatment is that it won't be terribly difficult to reproduce at other medical centers, Porter said, and one day, instead of being used only experimentally, it could be available to anyone who needed it.
"Our hope is that this can progress really quite quickly," he said. "It won't be available to everyone next year, but I don't think it would take a decade, either."
Right now patients can only get this therapy if they're in a study, but Dr. Renier Brentjens, director for cellular therapeutics at Memorial Sloan-Kettering, says he thinks it could become available to all patients in just three to five years.
"When you have three centers all with a substantial number of patients seeing the same thing -- that these cells work in this disease - you know it's not a fluke," he said.
Two days ago, Brentjens became the co-founder of Juno Therapeutics, a for-profit biotech start-up company that's working on immunotherapies.
"Fifteen years ago I was in the lab looking at these cells kill tumor cells in a petri dish and then I saw them kill tumor cells in mice, and then finally in humans," Brentjens said.
He says he'll never forget the first patient he treated, who initially had an enormous amount of cancer cells in his bone marrow. Then after the therapy, Brentjens looked under the microscope and, in awe, realized he couldn't find a single cancer cell.
"I can't describe what that's like," he said. "It's fantastic."

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #78 on: 10-12-2013, 13:09:12 »
Ovo mi je toliko zanimljivo da ću naredna tri sata (umesto da radim na godišnjem izveštaju) potrošiti da vidim kako manipulišu T limfocitima.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #79 on: 10-12-2013, 18:53:03 »
Ispravno. Ta ja godišnji izveštaj nisam još ni počeo.
 
Vidim da ljudi na slešdotu gunđaju da je ova vrsta tretmana nezgodna jer posle imunosistem više ne ume da se vrati u normalu...

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #80 on: 19-12-2013, 22:01:31 »
u nedostatku boljeg, ovo gornje mehanovo dobilo nagradu. :lol:

Science's editors have chosen cancer immunotherapy as Breakthrough of the Year for 2013, a strategy that harnesses the body's immune system to combat tumors. It's an attractive idea, and researchers have struggled for decades to make it work. Now, many oncologists say those efforts are paying off, as two different techniques show signs of helping some patients. One involves antibodies that release a brake on T cells, giving them the power to tackle tumors. Another involves genetically modifying an individual's T cells outside the body to make them better able to target cancer, and then reinfusing them so they can do just that. Experts stress that these techniques have been tested in only small trials, and they don't always work. But the results have raised hope that immunotherapy may give doctors new options for treatment in the future.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #81 on: 19-12-2013, 22:07:05 »
mnogo slatko.

Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #82 on: 03-01-2014, 09:09:10 »
Finnish HIV vaccine testing to begin
 
Quote
Finnish company FIT Biotech has developed a vaccine to be tested in a large clinical trial. Hundreds of HIV patients will participate in the comprehensive study, which is scheduled to begin next year. 
 The study will test the vaccine's efficacy at reducing the viral load of current HIV patients, in conjunction with AIDS medication.
The Tampere-based biotechnology company plans to begin testing some time after spring 2014. Previous tests have shown that the vaccine may have the ability to stop the progression of the disease, or at best to eliminate the HIV virus completely.Important collaborationThe company is working in collaboration with two leading European Universities, in addition to one or two large American pharmaceutical companies, according to  medical doctor and FIT Biotech’s CEO, Kalevi Reijonen.
“The study will last two to three years. Then, of course, applications will be made to the FDA in the USA and the EMA in Europe to authorise the marketing of the drug,” explains Reijonen. “Dealing with the regulations may take a year and a half. So we’re still looking at about five years before the drug would become available.”
Some 1,000 patients throughout France and Switzerland will take part on the trials, with the first phase involving hundreds of HIV sufferers. Participant numbers will increase as the programme progresses.Revolutionising HIV treatmentFIT plans to test the efficacy of the vaccine when used in conjunction with AIDS medication. If all goes well, the vaccine should be approved and will become available within 5 years.
Reijonen claims that the medication will revolutionise the treatment of HIV. At present, the drug related medical treatment of an HIV-patient in an industrialised country costs some 10-15,000 euros per year. With vaccination, the cost could be around a tenth of that figure.
FIT Biotech does not intend to manufacture the vaccine for sale itself, but will license production to a partner.
The company expects the vaccine to generate advance payments of tens of millions of euros and to attract royalties in the realm of hundreds of millions of euros every year.
“Our licensing negotiations will certainly be launched early next year because when these studies begin an agreement must also be negotiated. So, we are trying to move forward now on quite a tight schedule,” says Reijonen.GTU technology "gentle on the body"According to Reijonen, the GTU technology developed by FIT Biotech is also suitable for use as a preventive HIV vaccine, however, he says that such a drug is still ten years away.
The central idea behind HIV vaccine development is the use of genetic immunization. Genes are introduced into the body in order to generate a controlled immune response against HIV. Gene Transport Unit (or GTU) technology refers to FIT Biotech’s patented method by which genes can be safely introduced into the body.
“It could be described as a lorry that transports the load required for treatment or prevention into the body,” describes Reijonen.
According to him, GTU technology has a great advantage compared to earlier methods, in that the vaccine is pure DNA.
“There is not much to cause side-effects and the effect mechanism on the human body is also gentle,” Reijonen adds.
    Sources Yle 

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #83 on: 08-01-2014, 18:15:13 »
da prvo napravimo razliku izmedju profilakse i terapije?
mrzim kad svet ono sto je terapija zove vakcina! :lol:
a to sto je vakcina "pure dna" sounds ne previse promissing.
zivi bili pa videli.

btw, danas primih boostere: tetanus, difterija, pertusis, polio, M, M, R, hep A i hep B.  9 komada a ne osecam se haj. nesto tu ne valja.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #84 on: 11-07-2014, 11:35:35 »
Nije o vakcini, ali jeste o HIV-u!!!
Quote
The first documented case of a child being cured of HIV was announced today at 2013 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Atlanta, GA.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130303172640.htm


http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/11/hiv-cure-girl-still-has-virus?CMP=twt_fd

toliko o tome.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #85 on: 04-12-2014, 12:10:11 »
Lilite nema pa nema. Možda je ovo dozove.

Studija pokazuje da HIV gubi oštricu i menja se u blaže oblike (baš kao što je Norman Spinrad predvideo pre više od dve decenije):


Impact of HLA-driven HIV adaptation on virulence in populations of high HIV seroprevalence


Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #86 on: 03-01-2015, 08:56:37 »
Pošto se  i u Srbijici sve više pomalja pretnja organizovanog pokreta protiv vakcinisanja, ovaj strip  na mediumu valja imati u šteku za brzo podsećanje:
 
https://medium.com/the-nib/vaccines-work-here-are-the-facts-5de3d0f9ffd0

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #87 on: 20-02-2015, 10:17:09 »
Stopping HIV with an artificial protein


Quote
For 30 years, researchers have struggled to determine which immune responses best foil HIV, information that has guided the design of AIDS vaccines and other prevention approaches. Now, a research team has shown that a lab-made molecule that mimics an antibody from our immune system may have more protective power than anything the body produces, keeping four monkeys free of HIV infection despite injection of large doses of the virus.
Intensive hunts are under way for natural HIV antibodies that can stop—or “neutralize”—the many variants of the constantly mutating AIDS virus. Researchers have recently found several dozen broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that are highly potent and work at low doses. But viral immunologist Michael Farzan of the Scripps Research Institute in Jupiter, Florida, and 33 co-workers have recently taken a different strategy, building a novel molecule based on our knowledge of how HIV infects cells. HIV infects white blood cells by sequentially attaching to two receptors on their surfaces. First, HIV’s own surface protein, gp120, docks on the cell’s CD4 receptor. This attachment twists gp120 such that it exposes a region on the virus that can attach to the second cellular receptor, CCR5. The new construct combines a piece of CD4 with a smidgen of CCR5 and attaches both receptors to a piece of an antibody. In essence, the AIDS virus locks onto the construct, dubbed eCD4-Ig, as though it were attaching to a cell and thus is neutralized.
In test-tube experiments, eCD4-Ig outperformed all known natural HIV antibodies at stopping the virus from infecting cells, Farzan’s team reports in this week’s issue of Nature. To test how it works in animals, they then put a gene for eCD4-Ig into a harmless virus and infected four monkeys; the virus forces the monkey’s cells to mass produce the construct. When they “challenged” these monkeys and four controls with successively higher doses of an AIDS virus for up to 34 weeks, none of the animals that received eCD4-Ig became infected, whereas all of the untreated ones did.
The new study ups the ante on a similar gene therapy approach with natural antibodies that 6 years ago showed promise in monkey experiments, says an accompanying Nature editorial by AIDS vaccine researcher Nancy Haigwood of Oregon Health & Science University in Beaverton. “I am a huge fan of this paper,” Haigwood says. “It’s really very creative and a breakthrough as far as I am concerned.” Pediatrician Philip Johnson of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, whose lab in 2009 showed success with a gene therapy that delivers an HIV bNAb, adds that eCD4-Ig “is a beautiful thing.”
Building on work by Johnson’s group, Farzan’s team stitched the gene for eCD4-Ig into an adeno-associated virus (AAV) that is harmless to humans. Those viruses, injected into monkey muscles, continued to produce eCD4-Ig for the 40 weeks of the experiment. “Everyone expects with AAV that this can go on forever,” Farzan says. The animals had no detectable immune response against the eCD4-Ig, presumably because it is so similar to pieces of their own cells.
Not everyone is convinced that eCD4-Ig will ultimately work better than natural HIV antibodies. Virologist David Baltimore, a Nobel laureate based at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is working with a group developing its own AAV gene therapy that delivers an HIV bNAb. He describes the eCD4-Ig chimera and the paper as “impressive” and says he welcomes this new approach. But Baltimore, who like Johnson has already moved into early phase human trials with his gene therapy, notes that the new work offers only test-tube and animal data. “It’s perhaps a better construct than the antibodies we’ve been using, but it’s a matter of how it plays out in human trials,” Baltimore says. “I don’t think it’s easy to tell how that will happen.”
Johnson agrees that eCD4-Ig may not work as well as bNAbs in humans, but also says the natural antibodies, even if they have less potency and breadth, may be powerful enough to stop HIV. “How good is good enough?” Johnson asks. “Nobody has a clue about that. The only way you would know really is to do a bake-off in a human trial.”
Farzan says in theory at least, it will be harder for the virus to mutate its way around eCD4-Ig than a bNAb, because HIV needs to bind to CD4 and CCR5. Whether any of these gene therapies will prove safe and practical remains to be seen. Farzan, for his part, has more experiments planned before moving into humans. “We need to do a lot more monkey studies to see if there’s anything weird,” he says.
 

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #89 on: 26-04-2015, 12:01:31 »
Whoa, kakav iznenadan i neisprovociran povratak na forum  :lol:  Dobrodošli, dobrodošli.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #90 on: 26-04-2015, 19:43:07 »
de si bre mehane :lol:
posao me ubi a forumska forma preduga.

frustrira me količina nepoznanica u imunologiji, posledično je i vakcinologija na niskim granama al tako mu je to.
ni blizu hiv, tbc, hlamidija, malarija, etc vakcina.
horor.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #91 on: 26-04-2015, 23:49:33 »
Ma, čujte, statistika ipak pokazuje da više od osamdeset posto građana Srbije umre od nezaraznih bolesti, dakle, čisto matematički, više treba da se bavimo kardiovaskularnim sistemom i kancerom (i ajde, dijabetesom) nego HIVom ili tuberkulozom čije su incidence srazmerno niske.
 
Naravno, ne do bog da se život svede na matematiku. Uzdamo se da ipak ove vakcine vidimo za naših života.

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #92 on: 27-04-2015, 14:29:23 »
Samo na Srbiju misliš, tsk tsk tsk
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #94 on: 03-06-2015, 09:13:06 »
Nije AIDS vakcina, ali jeste umjetni pankreas za ljude koji imaju dijabetes tip 1. Dakle, pametna mašina koja meri nivoe šećera u krvi i pušta insulin u krvotok kolko misli da treba.



Diabetes Has a New Enemy: Robo-Pancreas



Quote
Sensors, actuators, and algorithms can automatically control blood sugar



The first great wonder drug was insulin, the blood-sugar-regulating hormone that was isolated in Canada nearly a century ago. The before-and-after pictures still astound: a skeletal wraith on the left, a rosy-cheeked child on the right.
But the promise of insulin has yet to be fulfilled. Normally, the pancreas, an organ near the liver, secretes insulin to control the concentration of glucose in the blood. In patients with type 1 diabetes—once known as juvenile diabetes because it’s usually diagnosed in children—the pancreas makes no insulin of its own, so those with the disease must work hard to mimic that organ’s function. If blood sugar goes too low, the patient faints; if it goes too high, it poses long-term risks to the eyes, nerves, and arteries. So several times a day the patient must prick a finger to test blood sugar, make a calculation based on planned meals and exercise, and adjust the injection of insulin to account for it all. The burden of self-management goes on night and day.


Now, after half a century of work, a solution at last is in the offing: the artificial pancreas. It links data from an implanted blood-sugar sensor to a computer, which then controls how a pump worn on the hip dribbles insulin under the skin through a pipette. In its fully realized form, the machine would take the patient out of the decision-making loop, which is why it is often called a closed-loop system.
“It is a classic problem in control technology, which is the methodology used in process control,” says Ahmad Haidar, an electrical engineer working on the problem at the Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM). Such technology is used, for instance, to guide a spacecraft or to govern the processing of crude oil in a refinery. Haidar’s group is one of a number of academic and corporate teams vying to create a closed-loop system for an artificial pancreas.
“Each patient is represented by a set of differential equations,” Haidar says, “parameterized based on physical information—body weight and total daily insulin dose, for instance.” Then the algorithm figures out how to administer that dose from one minute to the next to keep the glucose levels within safe bounds. Partial versions of the closed loop are being rolled out now, and more advanced versions are in clinical trials.
The work of Haidar’s group and others is finally promising to complete a vision that began more than a half-century ago and always seemed just around the corner. In 1978, in fact, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories, in New Mexico, wrote in these pages of an “electronic pancreas” that would come in three to five years’ time. This time, though, is different: Actual products are hitting the market, and closed-loop systems that take over more of the diabetes management are in trials. Finally, everybody in the field agrees that a solution is nigh.
A slew of improvements in sensors, actuators, algorithms, and insulin are coming together to create the artificial pancreas. Brian Herrick, diagnosed with type 1 at age 3, got to see the latest results for himself last November, during a trial in New York City of a system devised at the University of Virginia.
“The thing that was cool about it was that it works,” says Herrick, 27, who directs strategic communications at the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). Together with a colleague, he spent several days and nights in a controlled setting, surrounded by doctors and engineers.
“We used a Dexcom continuous glucose sensor, hooked through a cellphone with an algorithm and to a Roche pump, linked to it by a Bluetooth signal,” says Herrick, recalling each detail as if the trial had just happened. “One night my blood sugar was 80 [milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood], with an arrow pointing downward—it was dropping at 2 milligrams of glucose per deciliter per minute. The system shut off insulin, the blood sugar cruised down to 78, sat there, rose to 110, and then, no more movement. It was level.” Normal fasting blood glucose ranges from 70 to 100 mg/dl.
The trial mainly looked at nighttime control, which is critical, because the patient may not wake in time to handle a bout of low blood sugar. “My mother is still fearful of my sleeping at night, even though I’ve got my fiancée sleeping next to me,” says Herrick.
For now he is back to his old routine, making all the decisions himself, but with some help from a Dexcom glucose sensor that he applies to his upper arm, under his sleeve; it beams data to the screen of a pager-size reader. He uses the information to help decide what to eat and how much insulin to administer (although technically he is supposed to recheck the numbers with a finger stick before an injection).


It’s not completely automated, like the trial system was, but such continuous monitoring is itself a huge advance over 10 years ago, and one that lends itself to remote monitoring through the cloud. Last year, Dexcom got FDA approval for its Dexcom G4 Platinum System with Share, which parents can use to keep tabs on their kids’ blood sugar.
“Sure, it gives peace of mind to a mom or dad whose child goes to a first sleepover,” says Jorge A. Valdes, chief technical officer of Dexcom, in San Diego. “But consider: Once the data is in the servers, there’s a lot we can do to affect disease management.” For instance, doctors could mine the data for patterns in which patients suffer from low blood sugar, then adjust diet or insulin dosage accordingly.
The information can also be used to prove to insurers that the money they spend on health care is producing results. “Health care providers are more and more being paid for outcomes,” Valdes says. “Payers want patients to stay on the system; now they can make sure that patients do.”
The development of the technology has proceeded by measured steps, much like the progress toward the driverless car—first antilock brakes, next GPS navigation, then adaptive cruise control and self-parking. Finally, at the end of the rainbow, the Google self-driving car. The first step toward a robotic pancreas came in 1964, when a hospital-based experiment proved, in principle, that it was possible to achieve near-normal blood-sugar control. In the 1970s, Dean Kamen invented the insulin pump, making it possible for patients to administer insulin to themselves in a continuous fashion, rather than through frequent injections. Soon after, a hospital system called Biostator GCIIS was released in Germany; it combined a pump with a large, complex continuous glucose monitor.


In recent years, pumps have become smaller, more reliable, more programmable, and more comfortable, using ever-finer pipettes, which the patient inserts through a slightly larger needle. Continuous glucose monitors were first approved a decade ago, and they are beginning to replace the finger-prick method, now that improved coatings and other engineering details have allowed patients to keep their superthin electrochemical sensors under the skin for seven days. “I’ve had this one in for eight,” says Herrick.
The first machine worthy of the name of artificial pancreas was Medtronic’s Minimed 530G, which went on sale in the United States in 2014. It stops the flow of insulin when the patient’s blood glucose falls below a set point. Then, in January, Medtronic began selling the 640T; like the system Herrick tested, this system stops the insulin when its algorithm merely predicts that the patient’s blood sugar will drop. It’s on the market in Australia and is set to sell in Europe later this year. In the United States, the clinical trials are just getting under way.
Medtronic’s first clinical tests of what became the 640T began about a decade ago, says Francine R. Kaufmann, the company’s chief medical officer and a practicing endocrinologist. Why the long delay between the proof of concept and routine use? “There’s a big difference when you take someone who goes out and lives daily life, exercises, gets drunk, and other stuff,” Kaufmann says.
Much can go wrong. Pumps clog, algorithms misfire, sensors get walled off by scar tissue. Some of the recent technical advances are proprietary and still under wraps, but it’s known that Medtronic and Dexcom have developed biocompatible coatings as well as sensors with multiple electrochemical sites that can be polled to see which ones no longer work properly.
One of the biggest challenges is lag. In a feedback-control system with too much lag, your efforts to lower the upswings and raise the downswings can make those variations worse. Glucose sensors typically show you where your blood sugar was 10 minutes ago, but because they also track changes over time, they can give you a pretty good idea of where you stand now. The real problem is the insulin. Today’s bioengineered insulins, called analogues, reach their peak effect in 60 to 90 minutes. Even faster-acting analogues, now in the lab, may shave off another 15 minutes, but even that’s not good enough.
“To get a meaningful improvement, enough to have a fully closed loop, you need insulin to act in 10 to 15 minutes—total,” says Roman Hovorka, a specialist in mathematical informatics at the University of Cambridge, in England. “Two analogues in development are about 15 minutes faster than today’s—and that’s nowhere close enough.”
Your body responds to a meal as a sprinter does to a starter’s commands. When you just contemplate eating, nerves signal the pancreas to start synthesizing insulin: On your mark. When you swallow, insulin-making cells get ready for release: Get set. When your digestive tract has broken starch down into sugar and dumped it into the bloodstream, the pancreatic cells directly sense this change and dump their pent-up insulin: Go. In a heartbeat, the hormone reaches the liver, just a few centimeters away, where much of it is absorbed immediately. The liver then soaks up sugar, blood-sugar concentration falls, and the pancreas steps down its activity.
That level of control is far beyond what lag-plagued pumps can reasonably hope to achieve. The only way to match it is by growing or implanting new insulin-secreting cells in the patient’s body. Efforts in that direction have achieved scattered successes since the development, in the 1970s, of ways of controlling tissue rejection. But progress has been slow.
For now at least, the closed-loop robo-pancreas is ahead of such biological approaches, says IRCM’s Haidar, even though it will never duplicate the human body. “We know an airplane isn’t better than a bird,” he says. “We’re not replicating a pancreas—we can never beat how the body works.”
One way to speed the insulin’s effects is to implant a pump right inside the abdominal cavity, so the insulin can get to the liver more quickly. “But you’re talking about surgery,” Haidar says. “If you have a 2-year-old daughter, which would you prefer?”
Besides the sensor and the pump are the algorithms, the secret sauce that allows the artificial pancreas to analyze, learn, and control. One of the first algorithmic techniques looked at the rate of change of blood sugar. Another one, sometimes called an expert system, sets up a table that pairs problems with responses in the form “if this happens, do that; if that happens, do this,” says Aaron Kowalski, a medical geneticist who heads artificial-pancreas research for the JDRF.
A third kind of algorithm tries to model human physiology, for instance by considering how quickly food passes through your system and how long the insulin takes to work. “The beauty of this approach is that it’s like chess programming: You reset the variable when your opponent makes his move—that is, when new data arrive,” says Kowalski.
Tuning these algorithms requires big data, gathered from both the individual patient and the larger community of patients. Hovorka’s group at the University of Cambridge is conducting trials of advanced systems in the home, not just in controlled settings. Hovorka is also working with a corporate partner, but he won’t say which one. (He notes, however, that only two companies are pushing the closed-loop solution now: Medtronic and Animas Corp., in West Chester, Pa.) He says his algorithms learn by doing and so adapt to the patient.
“The algorithm analyzes during the day and between days for short-term learning and also longer term,” Hovorka says. “If somebody goes skiing, you can see a drop-off in blood sugar, and the system has to be able to cope. Every 10 to 12 minutes we run the algorithm for predictive control. We have a number of models running in parallel, with each given a probabilistic value based on how well it fitted the data in the past.
“We can achieve what no other technology can do now,” he says. “Hypoglycemia [low blood sugar] is down 30 to 50 percent,” Hovorka says. Patients spent 20 percent longer in the targeted zone for blood sugar—not too high and not too low.
“It’s good enough to use now—I believe so,” he insists.
One of the most fraught questions in the robo-pancreas community has been whether to stick with insulin alone or to add a pump for the hormone glucagon. Insulin lowers blood sugar by helping the body—particularly the liver—store it. In the liver, glucose is converted to glycogen, a kind of animal starch. Glucagon works in the opposite direction by stimulating the liver to turn that starch back into sugar and dump it into the bloodstream. People with diabetes often carry a special pen charged with glucagon for others to use on them in case they faint from low blood sugar.
In a dual-hormone pump, insulin serves as the accelerator and glucagon as the brake, in principle allowing for finer control. But at a diabetes technology conference held in Paris this past February, funding organizations appeared to have doubled down on the simpler one-hormone system in the hope that it will get approved more easily.
One cause of the change was a recent report by researchers from IRCM. They compared the one- and two-hormone systems and found no significant advantage for the dual-hormone method. Their report seems to have had an effect.
“Prior to Paris, I’d have said the jury was still out,” says IRCM’s Remi Rabasa-Lhoret, one of the authors of the report. “Now I believe the jury is not out. Other teams working on the single-hormone approach have progressed immensely. The JDRF told us in a private meeting: You are doing a good job, and we want to put all our money on bringing the closed loop to market.”
What’s next? As the millions of people with type 1 diabetes work out the kinks in the new technology, it will spread to the hundreds of millions with type 2 diabetes, many of whom would also benefit from insulin but shy away from it because of the needles and the bother.
Now that the artificial pancreas is finally within reach, we can look back at this as the perfect case study of excessive technological optimism. A machine that senses which way your blood sugar is going and keeps it on the right track—how hard could it be? How long could it take?
Hard as hell. And 50 years.


Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #95 on: 12-06-2015, 06:32:38 »
Kažu nije od vakcine:
 
 The Type of Parents Most Likely to Have a Child with Autism
 
Quote

A massive new study on autism risk has found elevations related to parental age — of both teen moms and older parents.
With an analysis of more than 5.7 million children in five countries, the study, published Wednesday in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, is the largest of its kind to ever look at the connection between parental age and autism risk.
STORY: What It’s Like to Be a Kid With Autism
“The size of the study speaks to the definitiveness of the findings,” says co-author Michael Rosanoff, director of public health research for Autism Speaks, the organization that funded the study. “We can now say confidently that advanced paternal and maternal age is a risk factor for autism.” Such findings are not new, he tells Yahoo Parenting, but this is by far the most sweeping of its kind.
It also turned up some new correlations: In addition to finding that autism rates were 66 percent higher among children born to dads over the age of 50 than those in their 20s (and 28 percent higher for dads in their 40s), researchers found rates were 18 percent higher with teen moms than those with moms in their 20s.
STORY: Controversial Cannabis Treatment Helps 9-Year-Old Boy Speak His First Words
Also, autism rates were 15 percent higher in children born to mothers in their 40s — and higher than usual when there were wide gaps, of 10 years or more, between parents. That was especially true when dads were between 35 and 44 and their partners were at least a decade younger.
The increased risk on both sides of the age spectrum raise many questions, and Rosanoff says, “was intriguing to the investigators.”
Theories regarding the rise in autism risk for kids of older parents are pretty solid, he notes, explaining that one points to evidence that “we accumulate mutations in sperm and egg cells as we age.” Another hypothesis is that people who have children at advanced ages may do so because they themselves are “on the spectrum,” and may have social difficulties that made it tough for them to couple up and become parents for much of their early adult lives; in these cases, researchers theorize, there may be a genetic link to autism.
Looking at higher risk among teen moms, Rosanoff adds, scientists believe age itself might point to a “suboptimal pregnancy,” with less medical monitoring and higher health risks in general.
Still, there’s no reason for alarm, notes co-author Sven Sandin, a medical epidemiologist, in an Autism Speaks press release. “Although parental age is a risk factor for autism, it is important to remember that, overall, the majority of children born to older or younger parents will develop normally,” says the doctor, a medical epidemiologist with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, in New York, and Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.
The goal of the new study was to determine whether advancing maternal or paternal ages independently increase autism risk, and to what extent. But much more research is needed before any recommendations about birth and parenting age get officially changed, Rosanoff says.
“Risk doesn’t mean cause,” he notes. “These are risk factors helping us to understand ideological pathways — but not a cause in itself.”
 

....

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 13.197
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #96 on: 12-06-2015, 07:13:41 »
Quote
...Also, autism rates were ... higher than usual when there were wide gaps, of 10 years or more, between parents. That was especially true when dads were between 35 and 44 and their partners were at least a decade younger...

meho, stvarno znas covjeku pokvariti dan. :cry:

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #97 on: 12-06-2015, 07:56:52 »
Hvala, trudim se.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #98 on: 12-06-2015, 09:13:09 »
jedino bitno:

“Risk doesn’t mean cause,” he notes. “These are risk factors helping us to understand ideological pathways — but not a cause in itself.”
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #99 on: 12-06-2015, 09:16:18 »
Najbolje je ne rizikovati i sterilisati se čim krene pubertet.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #100 on: 12-06-2015, 09:17:06 »
a neke i pre puberteta
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #101 on: 30-12-2015, 18:36:27 »
ameriko, samonapalmuj se

"It's very hard to talk about HIV prevention with someone who is homeless or someone who isn't sure where they're going to find their next meal."

http://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/30/health/hiv-treatment-disparity-us/
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #102 on: 13-01-2016, 08:07:47 »
Charlie Sheen Quits HIV Meds: ‘I Was Born Dead’
Quote

Charlie Sheen admitted on Tuesday that he has been off his HIV medication “for about a week now” and is seeking alternative treatment in Mexico.
“I’ve been off my meds for about a week now,” he said on “The Dr. Oz Show.” “Am I risking my life? Sure. So what? I was born dead. That part of it doesn’t faze me at all.”
The actor also said he is seeking treatment from a physician named Dr. Sam Chachoua, whom Dr. Mehmet Oz says is not licensed to practice medicine in the United States.
 
 
In November, the sitcom star revealed to Matt Lauer on NBC’s “Today” that he was diagnosed with HIV four years ago. During his appearance, he said that doctors found an undetectable amount of the virus in his blood. However, two months later, Sheen told Dr. Oz that he received some terrible news before stepping onto the stage.
“I’m a little off my game, because right before I walked out here, I got some results that I was disappointed about,” he said. “I know this is an experiment, that I took a stroll down a different path. But yeah, I’d been non-detectable and non-detectable and checking the blood every week, and then found out that the numbers were back up.”

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #103 on: 11-02-2016, 17:29:27 »
EAVI2020 is a 23 million euro initiative to accelerate the search for an effective HIV vaccine.
The EAVI2020 consortium, which is led by Imperial College London, brings together leading HIV researchers from public organisations and biotech companies from across Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA, pooling their knowledge and expertise to develop novel candidate vaccines that can be taken through to human trials within five years. EAVI2020 is funded with an EU-grant under the health program of Horizon 2020 for research and innovation.
EAVI2020 is a 23 million euro initiative to accelerate the search for an effective HIV vaccine.
The EAVI2020 consortium, which is led by Imperial College London, brings together leading HIV researchers from public organisations and biotech companies from across Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA, pooling their knowledge and expertise to develop novel candidate vaccines that can be taken through to human trials within five years. EAVI2020 is funded with an EU-grant under the health program of Horizon 2020 for research and innovation.
https://www.imperial.ac.uk/research-and-innovation/support-for-staff/programme-management-office/eu-consortium-management/eavi-2020/
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #104 on: 27-02-2016, 07:52:26 »

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #105 on: 07-05-2016, 21:47:50 »
hm, prođoh topikom i videh da nismo zabeležili da je WHO prošle godine preporučila (na osnovu brojnih studija) da se s antiviralnom terapijom krene čim se sazna da smo HIV+. ranija dogma je bila da se ne kreće pre nego nam CD4+ limfociti ne padnu ispod magične cifre od 500.
problem s HIV infekcijom je što se pokazalo da virus ne targetuje samo šefove imunskog sistema (CD4+ limfociti) već i mnoge druge vojnike plus se zavlači svuda i pravi lom na raznim nivoima.
naravno, terapija košta pa se države ne takmiče ko će prvi implementirati nove preporuke.
novi zeland krenuo tim putem:
http://www.gaynz.com/articles/publish/2/article_18238.php
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #106 on: 07-05-2016, 21:49:44 »
Pa, da, to je toliko novo da nije praktično nigde još krenulo osim u tih par izolovanih slučajeva. Kod nas ne verujem da će da se desi još nekoliko godina.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #107 on: 07-05-2016, 22:04:02 »
krenulo bogami u usa i to vrlo ozbiljno: pouzdan info dobijen u Woodyju (Philly) sve uz mojito i znojna gej tela u okolini :lol:

Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #108 on: 20-05-2016, 11:40:57 »
Scientists Find A “Weak Spot” In HIV That May Pave the Way to a Vaccine



Quote
In Brief Research conducted by a team from the National Institutes of Health reported a new vulnerable site on HIV for vaccines to target. It is based on an antibody from the blood of an HIV-infected patient that binds with the virus and also prevents it from infecting a cell.
 
For decades, scientists all over the world have been concentrating efforts to find a way to deal with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sure, they’ve developed ways to treat the infected and to keep the virus at bay, but true prevention is another case—HIV was clinically observed in 1981 and we still don’t have a vaccine.
But perhaps this new research will finally help eradicate the tricky virus.
 A Weak Spot A recent press release reports that a team of scientists led by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has discovered a new “weak spot” in HIV that vaccines can target. The area, called the fusion peptide, is a simple structure of eight amino acids that helps the virus fuse with a cell.
According to the study, the team used a particularly powerful antibody, called VRC34.01, taken from the blood of an unnamed HIV-positive patient that caught the weak spot in the virus.
It’s not only capable of binding with the virus through the fusion peptide but also preventing it from infecting an entire cell. By crystallizing the binding process right while it was occurring, the scientists were able to observe this phenomenon at a molecular level.

Still Moonshots Away Notably, it was not only this particular patient that possessed the powerful antibody to stop HIV from infecting cells. The researchers screened other HIV-positive volunteers and found that 10 out of 24 of the blood samples followed the same targeting mechanism as VRC34.01.
While everything looks promising, the scientists still need to figure out a way to draw out similar antibodies in other patients that are not fortunate enough to have VRC34.01 in their systems. That would mean animal trials before getting to human testing.
Nonetheless, this is certainly a milestone for those working to eradicate HIV.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #109 on: 20-05-2016, 16:24:44 »
         
ah što volim press releases! :lol:

naravno da bismo da targetujemo ono bitno za host cell - HIV interakciju, al mali problem je što HIV ima toliko različitih mogućnosti i ulazi gde stigne. ovaj rezultat nam kazuje da imaju sekvencu HIV-1 fuzionog peptida, otprilike nekih 15-20 hidrofobnih ostataka koji su locirani na N terminusu glikoproteina 41, inače najslađeg HIV proteina. gp41 sačeka da gp120 odradi vezivanje za npr. CD4 molekul što omogući da gp41 promeni konformaciju i dobijemo Far Cry 3 xuzi

hipoteza je ona stara, ako imamo antitela koja blokiraju fuziju gp41 sa ćelijom domaćina, teoretski (ali samo teoretski :mrgreen: ), HIV neće ući, a ako ne uđe, onda će da crkne. 

šesnaesta priča je ovaj poslednji pasus, mislim, ok, imate tih 15-20 aminokiselina, ali kako ćete od toga da dođete do adekvatog imunogena (ono što pokreće imunski sistem da napravi kakvu takvu odbranu) je solidan problem, etc, etc. 

i think i am still in love with HIV i već je prošlo 25 godina otkako mi je fredi umro :cry:
 
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #110 on: 01-06-2016, 16:50:31 »

gud njuz


New U.N. targets for HIV/AIDS treatment expensive, but could save millions of lives


A new study estimates the impact of an initiative of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS known as 90-90-90, and finds that while its targets for HIV testing and treatment will require unprecedented investment, it will increase survival, reduce the number of children orphaned by HIV, and contain the global AIDS epidemic.
The study, co-authored by researchers at the Yale School of Public Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the University of Cape Town, was published in the May 30 online edition of the Annals of Internal Medicine.


Launched in 2014, the 90-90-90 program’s overall goal is to achieve viral suppression — reducing the viral load to an undetectable level — among 73% of HIV-infected persons worldwide by 2020. It is currently estimated that 24% of those with HIV have achieved viral suppression. To meet the goal, the program has three key objectives: diagnosing 90% of HIV-infected persons worldwide; linking 90% of identified cases to antiretroviral therapy (ART); and achieving virologic suppression among 90% of ART recipients.


The researchers used South African epidemiologic data and results from HIV screening and treatment programs to gauge the likely impact of 90-90-90 in South Africa and compared it with the currently projected pace of HIV detection and treatment over the next 5 and 10 years. Using a computer simulation model, the team found that over the next decade, 90-90-90 would avert more than 2 million new HIV infections, more than 2.4 million deaths, and over 1.6 million orphans — saving an additional 13 million patient-years of life compared with the current pace of screening and treatment roll-out.
“We’re convinced, based on the results of our analysis, that successful implementation of the 90-90-90 targets would have a transformative impact on the AIDS epidemic worldwide,” said A. David Paltiel, professor at the Yale School of Public Health and senior author of the study.


Critics have expressed concern that the successful global implementation of 90-90-90 would require unprecedented cash infusions from donor organizations. “Our goal was to address that concern, providing donors and partner countries with pragmatic estimates of what 90-90-90 will cost and what returns they can expect on that investment,” said study co-author Linda-Gail Bekker, M.D., of the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre and University of Cape Town.
The program’s cost would be $54 billion over the next 10 years, a 42% cost increase over current scale-up activities. But taken as a whole, the study found that investment in 90-90-90 would yield a cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,260 per year of life saved, well within what is considered very cost effective for South Africa and a ratio similar to that of HIV treatment itself, the authors said.


“Yes, it would be very expensive, but it would be worth every penny,” said Rochelle P. Walensky, M.D., of the Massachusetts General Hospital’s Division of Infectious Disease and the study’s lead author.
Grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Steve and Deborah Gorlin Massachusetts General Hospital Research Scholars Award supported the study.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #111 on: 24-06-2016, 08:26:08 »
bitno bitno mega bitno otkriće!  xlove5 xlove5 xlove5

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/311140.php
Quote
HIV-1 hijacks cell protein to enlarge nuclear pores
Most viruses take the opportunity to enter the nucleus when the host cell divides and the nuclear membrane or envelope - the wall that protects the nucleus and its precious cargo of DNA - breaks down. But HIV-1 does not wait for this; somehow, it manages to enter the nucleus of non-dividing cells. Exactly how it does this has been a mystery for years. What has been especially baffling is that the HIV-1 capsid - the protein shell that protects the genetic material of the virus - is some 50 percent larger than the pores in the nuclear envelope. These pores normally allow proteins and other materials in the host cell to travel to and from between the nucleus and the cell body.
The discovery that Prof. Campbell and colleagues make in their study surrounds a protein called KIF5B that normally transports various materials inside the cell away from the nucleus.
They found that HIV-1 hijacks KIF5B and induces it to tear off pieces of the nuclear envelope and transport them away from the nucleus, causing the pores to become big enough to allow HIV-1 to pass through. The pieces that are torn off are proteins called Nup358.
In cells that have no KIF5B or Nup358, the authors note that HIV-1 entry is much reduced, and the virus accumulates around the outside of the nuclear envelope.


kako je samo sladak. ove crvene tačkice, to je HIV-1. sad da civilizacija nađe način za efikasno sprečavanje ulaska u citoplazmu i da pevamo.


Some things you have to do yourself.

Mica Milovanovic

  • 8
  • 3
  • *
  • Posts: 8.367
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #112 on: 24-06-2016, 08:42:16 »
Ako ti kažeš  xrofl
Mica

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #113 on: 24-06-2016, 08:48:15 »
ma samo se ti smej :lol:
kako su ljudi napisali rad, ej, to je art u pisanju radova, ma u udžbenike da uđe.
a eksperiment postavljen savršeno.
ma in love sam, rad izašao pre tri dana, evo: http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005700
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #114 on: 24-06-2016, 08:52:50 »
HIV je na kolenima! No, naravno, u razvijenijim zemljama se sa HIVom i sada živi prilično normalno, hvala Alahu i nauci, no ova vest je dobra posebno za nerazvijene zemlje gde je to i dalje grdna pošast.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #115 on: 24-06-2016, 09:21:16 »
ma naravno :)

al this is sooo science_fiction_like in a good way :lol:
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #116 on: 20-07-2016, 10:21:54 »
već smo pričali o prednostima (po nas) ako se krene sa antiretroviralnom terapijom (ART) čim saznamo da smo hiv+ (WHO čvrsto stoji na tom stanovištu od 2015. godine), a evo završena i prva ozbiljna petogodišnja studija (objavljena u New England Journal of Medicine) koja je pokazala da je i mogućnost prenosa virusa na partnera statistički značajno smanjena (93%) kod onih koji sa ART-om krenu ranije.
nadajmo se da će ovaj nalaz pomoći da se rana terapija uvede u državama gde se još uvek čeka da CD4+ limfociti padnu ispod 350-400 ćelija/mm3 da bi se krenulo s tretmanom.

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1600693
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #117 on: 20-07-2016, 10:26:57 »
Da, ali s obzirom da je ovde posle odlaska Globalnog Fonda stav ministarstva zdravlja da se oko HIVa više ne treba nešto mnogo cimati, mislim da se u Srbijici ovo neće tako skoro instalirati.  :(

zakk

  • Očigledan slučaj RASTROJSTVA!
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.892
    • IP Tardis
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #118 on: 20-07-2016, 11:22:32 »
Čitao sam nešto da se pate ljudi već oko redovnih analiza :-/
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #119 on: 20-07-2016, 11:31:23 »
Pa, actually, pošto sam radio sa udruženjima osoba koje žive sa HIV-om, generalni problem je trenutno taj (a mislim da sam to već pominjao ovde na forumu) da država obezbeđuje terapiju koja se uklapa sa rezultatima pregleda i to fercera, ali za same preglede ne obezbeđuju sve potrebne reagense pa onda postaje upitno koliko je terapija koju dobijaš zbilja ugođena sa tvojim trenutnim stanjem...

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #120 on: 20-07-2016, 19:13:36 »
terapija nije ugođena kako god okreneš jer se radi na osnovu preporuka iz 2002. godine. em to, em nema reagenasa za najobičniji qPCR, a nema ih prvenstveno jer i te narudžbe podležu hororu javnih nabavki u srbiji.

u svakom slučaju, preporuke iz 2002. su uglavnom bazirane na znanju da HIV ulazi samo u CD4+ limfocite (THE boss imunskog sistema), al danas znamo i da ladno uđe u obe vrste antigen prezentujućih ćelija (ćelije koje progutaju npr. mikroba, sažvaću ga i onda njegove deliće izbace na svoju površinu u okviru nekih sopstvenih proteina i tako imunski sistem razlikuje na šta da puca a na šta ne).
znači faking HIV uđe i u makrofage i u dendritične ćelije (dokazano), a gde se još sve zavuče pa se aktivira u pogodnim okolnostima, scientifically tek naslućujemo.

da ne palamudim previše, u srbiji nema previše ljudi koji imaju HIV. da li je državi toliko skupo da ih stavi na ART čim se utvrdi da su pozitivni?
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #121 on: 20-07-2016, 19:20:03 »
Pa, u teoriji nije, ali opet, deset godina je to plaćao Globalni Fond, sad je teško napraviti tranziciju u sistem koji će da to plaća iz budžeta, plus Vučićeva ekipa je iz Ministarstva zdravlja razjurila sve koji su se bavili ovom temom i pretila da će na robiju da ih otera jer su samo krali deset godina itd. Kancelarija za HIV u Batutu je puna pristojnog sveta ali opet, nije da oni imaju moć da na ovo utiču direktno.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #122 on: 21-07-2016, 09:54:42 »
ma tu bog ne može da utiče, ako lončar ostane, bia pobedila al bar će moći i dalje da se bave nadgledanjem testova za upis u gimnaziju :lol:

šalu na stranu, morala bi to da bude jaka PR kampanja jer i ljudi koji su hiv pozitivni početak terapije povezuju sa pogoršanjem stanja (što je posledica neinformisanosti kao i ranijih preporuka).
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #123 on: 21-07-2016, 10:13:36 »
Da, mada sam Lončar tu nije imao toliko hands-on uticaja koliko Dragana Jovanović koja je imala ako se dobro sećam savetničku ulogu 2014.-2015. godine i veoma jaku želju da razbuca svu tu ekipu koja se tamo bavila HIVom, uz obrazloženje da, kako incidenca nije pala za deset godina projekata globalnog fonda to mora da je dokaz da su ljudi zaduženi za projekat u ministarstvu samo krali i nisu ništa radili. Sad, ne kažem da tu nije bilo, što bi rekao Ilić Mr Velja, kraduckanja, mada ne kažem ni da ga je bilo, ja sam zakačio samo poslednjih godinu dana cele priče i mogu da pričam šta je bilo na nivou implementatora, ne toliko na nivou ministarstva, ali fakat je da je žena pustila da HIV strategija istekne i da se posle toga nije ni malo žurilo sa kreiranjem nove tako da sada ministarstvo radi samo po inerciji a civilni sektor koji se bavi podrškom osobama koje žive sa HIVom - koji ni u najboljim danima nije baš pucao od kapaciteta, ljudskih resursa, knowhowa itd. - je odgurnut na surovu ekonomsku i političku marginu i sada ako si osoba koja živi sa HIVom imaš mnogo manje podrške nego pre par godina. Plus, naravno, zdravstveni deo problema je samo deo problema osoba koje žive sa HIVom, socijalni deo problema je actually ono što njih užasno koči i, zapravo i dovodi dao pogoršanja zdravstvenog stanja...

Da ne grešim dušu, nekoliko HIV pozitivnih osoba koje znam žive aktivno i zdravo već decenijama, ali opet, nekoliko ih je i umrlo u poslednjih par godina jer nisu baš ni imali priliku da žive aktivnije i zdravije...

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #124 on: 21-07-2016, 10:38:47 »
da, sve se slažem.

treći problem je i zaštita/prenos virusa. neverovatno je koliko neki ljudi svesno uđu u rizik, i tu se ne razlikuju previše priče iz srbije i npr. usa.
i nisam uopšte pametna šta raditi po tom pitanju. ranije sam mislila da je informacija/obaveštenost krucijalna stvar, sad mislim da ni to nije dovoljno da se odnosimo drugačije prema sopstvenom zdravlju. ok, nije da svi konzumiramo isključivo zdrave produkte al kad znaš da postoji velika verovatnoća da je neko s kim se muvaš hiv+, onda valjda nije loše razmisliti i o zaštiti. posebno ako ti je dostupna pre-exposure profilaksa u kombinaciji sa kondomima.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #125 on: 21-07-2016, 10:45:12 »
Well, iz prakse se pokazuje da kombinovanje stalnog i ponovljenog informisanja i distribucije besplatnih kondoma (za targetirane grupe u povećanom riziku) doprinosi boljoj zaštiti, ali mislim da je uspostavljanje čvrstog linka između populacije i zdravstvenog sistema i to ne samo na nivou VCT-a (koji jeste bitan kao prvi, presudni korak) već u svim daljim potrebnim aktivnostima takođe jako važno.


Edit: Bat of kors, reiterirao bih da ovo rešava samo deo problema i da je bolja socijalna inkluzija osoba koje ili žive sa HIVom ili su u većem riziku od infekcije zapravo presudan element cele priče.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #126 on: 21-07-2016, 13:28:21 »
pre ću ja dočekati evoluciju nego bolju socijalnu inkluziju.
ajd što ljude izbacuju iz kuće kad saopšte da su hiv+, nego što se dešava da i najbolji prijatelji neće da jedu s njima da ih ne bi inficirali, na stranu što su upoznati s činjenicom da ni seksualni kontakt ne produkuje uspešnu infekciju ukoliko je load virusa premali.
nema tu rešenja do napalma pa onda sve ispočeka :lol:
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #127 on: 21-07-2016, 13:37:08 »
Da, no, ja pričam i još šire - dakle bolja socijalna inkluzija seksualnih radnica/ radnika, LGBT osoba, intravenskih korisnika droga, Roma, koje bi imala i druge pozitivne ishode pored smanjenja HIV incidence. Ali, naravno, težak je to proces. Mislim, svuda.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #128 on: 21-07-2016, 13:39:25 »
te utopije se čak i ševek manuo, te shodno tome i ja.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #129 on: 22-08-2016, 08:46:47 »
bitnost sopstvene mikroflore i jedan od lakših načina da se možda smanji predispozicija ka HIV infekciji.


Quote
How vaginal bacteria could be stoking HIV cases and blocking prevention

BY Heather Boerner

In some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, women may have an 80 percent chance of acquiring HIV in their lifetimes. New research reveals a bacterial culprit that could increase a woman’s likelihood of contracting the virus.

Jacqualine Ncube is doing everything she can to be among the 40 percent of South African women who remain HIV-negative into middle age.
At 19, she’s already participated in an HIV vaccine trial. She comes to the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre here in Cape Town every two months to be tested for HIV. She even takes a combination antiretroviral pill every night at 9 p.m. that prevents her from acquiring HIV if she’s exposed. And when it comes to sex, she insists that her boyfriend use a condom. No method is 100 percent protective, she said, so she covers all her bases.

When asked if her boyfriend ever scoffs at condoms, Ncube cracked a wry smile and shook her head emphatically.
“He’d never tell me something like that, because he knows what the answer is that he’s going to get,” she said. “I’m so rude when it comes to someone telling me what to do. I don’t want to be told what to do. I want to be my own person.”
By some estimates, about 40 percent of HIV infections are associated with biological mechanisms — mechanisms that scientists are just beginning to unravel.
She also wants, she said, “to be protected, always.”

But for a young woman to be protected always in this part of sub-Saharan Africa is a tall order. In some parts of the country, women her age have an 80 percent chance of acquiring HIV in their lifetimes. Not only are the social and economic odds against her, but a fluke of biology may be against her, too. By some estimates, about 40 percent of HIV infections are associated with biological mechanisms — mechanisms that scientists are just beginning to unravel.

Some of that unraveling is being done in real time. At the International AIDS Conference in Durban today, researchers at the Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) will unveil startling new evidence of a bacterial culprit that could be responsible for as many as two out of every five new cases of HIV among women. They’ll also reveal how another bacteria blocks the effectiveness of those pills Ncube takes.

At the heart of these discoveries is an area of research that was once considered a biological dead zone: the vaginal microbiome. Scientists have known since the 19th century that the vagina is colonized by bacteria. But it wasn’t until the 1990s that researchers began to discover the lush diversity of life there — and how that diversity may contribute to women’s risk for HIV. It’s no coincidence, it turns out, that women who live in areas with high rates of HIV also have disproportionately high rates of a microbiome imbalance called bacterial vaginosis (BV). The inflammation caused by BV, and the specific bacteria that make up that imbalance, can increase women’s susceptibility to the virus. With the research presented today, the field — and women’s chances of staying HIV-negative — could take another leap forward.

A Natural, Robust Defense

When Dr. Richard Cone, professor of biophysics at Johns Hopkins University, working on his PhD in the 1950s and 60s, the general attitude toward the vagina was, well, disinterested. In 1882, Albert Döderlein had identified Lactobacillus in the vagina, a friendly microbe that is also present in things like yogurt. And that, Cone said, was that.

“All the work we’ve done in the last 20 years could have been done 100 years ago,” Cone said. “But there was just no interest.”

By the late 1980s and early 1990s, Cone was interested, though. And so were microbiologists like Sharon Hillier, who began her career working in reproductive health, as well as other microbiologists around the world who began to see this as a fertile field of study. Cone, Hillier, and others began submitting grant applications to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Then, in the 1990s, a leadership change at the agency expanded funding.

Quickly, it became clear that there’s more to the vaginal microbiome than Lactobacillus. Indeed, there’s a world in there. A 2005 study in the New England Journal of Medicine identified more than 100 different types of bacteria in the vagina.

What researchers began to realize was that several strains of Lactobacillus had the power to protect women from sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV — and that others left women even more exposed.

First, the good news. The microbiome has a secret weapon against HIV: lactic acid. But the conditions have to be just right.
Here’s how it works. First, Lactobacillus has to dominate the vaginal microbiome. Second, the pH in the vagina has to drop below 4 — a low pH that conforms, perhaps not coincidentally, with a healthy pH in the gut (stomach pH tends to hover around 3.5). That’s the pH of a dill pickle.

If you have a Lactobacilli-dominated microbiome, you’ve already created a hostile environment for invading bacteria, viruses and even sperm, all of which thrive at a higher pH. But when you combine Lactobacilli-produced lactic acid with a very low pH, the environment isn’t just hostile. The lactic acid becomes deadly to invading bugs, Cone said.

At a very low pH, lactic acid turns into, in Cone’s words, “a small oily molecule” capable of slipping through the membranes of invading cells and releasing acid directly into the bug.
“The point at which Lacobacillus begins to secrete enough lactic acid to load up the mucosa with protons is at about 3.8,” said Cone. “It gets charged and forms a layer that is truly protective.”
And though the protective effect is modest, it still adds a layer between women and bugs.

“I like to say,” Cone said with a laugh, “that women need protection from sperm and germs.”

Living in Ncube’s World


The problem is that Lactobacillus doesn’t dominate the microbiomes of many of the world’s women — especially women most at risk for HIV. A 2010 study of American women in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that Lactobacillus dominated the microbiomes of Asian and white women, but accounted for only 59.6 and 61.9 percent of the microbiomes of Latina and Black women, respectively. The same has been found in sub-Saharan Africa.

That diversity in the microbiome, and the associated higher pH and increased inflammation is part of what we call BV.
Saying someone has BV is as specific as saying that someone has a cold. Yes, BV is associated with specific symptoms, such as watery discharge and malodor. But only specific combinations of bacteria are associated with those symptoms. So it’s possible to have asymptomatic BV — that is, diversity in the microbiome that increases pH but doesn’t cause discharge or odor. And it’s possible to have those symptoms and be so used to them that they don’t strike you as abnormal, or cause you to visit a doctor for treatment.

“Women don’t come in,” said David Fredricks, member of the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and author of that 2005 NEJM article, “and say, ‘My pH is off.’ They say, ‘I have malodor’ or ‘I have discharge.’”
But that’s exactly what’s happening, especially in women at high risk for HIV. In the U.S., the overall BV rate hovers around 29 percent. But for African American women, whose rates of HIV are 20 times higher than their white counterparts, BV rates can be as high as 51 percent. In Ncube’s Cape Town, where four in 10 new HIV infections occur among women 15 to 24, rates of BV reach 47 percent. And more than two-thirds of those women report no symptoms, said Shaun Barnabas, a PhD candidate studying the vaginal microbiome in Cape Town.

Finding the Smoking Gun

And it turns out that none of the bacteria associated with the symptoms of BV are the ones associated with HIV risk. For that, you have to turn to one strain: Prevotella bivia.
At least that’s the finding of a study released today at the International AIDS Conference. The study, based on the sequencing and analysis of the microbiomes of 120 South African women, found that it was only women with P. bivia in their microbiome who also were statistically more likely to have HIV, too—by a lot.

“What we found,” said CAPRISA’s Karim, “was that if a woman had ever had Prevotella, she had an almost 20-fold higher risk for inflammation and HIV acquisition than other women.”
Of the 120 women studied, 10 percent had ever had Prevotella. But that 10 percent accounted for 41 percent of all infections. That means that two out of five women in the study had acquired HIV because P. bivia set the stage.

It does that, Karim said, by producing proteins known to marshal a strong immune response. That signal causes immune cells called CD4 T cells to flood to the vaginal surface. Unfortunately, those cells are exactly the ones HIV targets to infiltrate and co-opt. Unrecognized by the rest of the immune system, those infected cells are transported to the lymph nodes. And voila — swift, efficient HIV infection.
That means that two out of five women in the study had acquired HIV because P. bivia set the stage.

And while the results are based on a small sample of patients and need to be replicated in other parts of the continent and world, the findings are already drawing praise from high places. Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease at the NIH, called it “quite an important observation.”
Being able to identify a specific villain is good,” (:lol:) he said. “Will manipulating the microbiome be the major thing that ends AIDS? No. But is it one of many, many things that need to be pursued, to help us possibly understand the novel ways we can prevent HIV in women? Absolutely.”

HIV Prevention At Stake


But that’s not all Karim’s team discovered. They also unveiled data today that linked another bacterial strain — Gardnerella vaginalis — to lower effectiveness of the HIV prevention pill Truvada in women.
Karim’s team started the study because they had noticed, in HIV prevention trials, that the efficacy rates were all over the place in women. A recent study out of University of North Carolina that predicted that, for women to receive full protection from the HIV prevention pill Truvada, they couldn’t miss even one dose. Gay men, meanwhile, had been shown in other studies to benefit from the full power of Truvada with just four doses a week.

“We need to figure this out,” Karim said he thought.

So they pulled the frozen microbiome samples from women who’d participated in CAPRISA’s study of an HIV prevention gel made from one of Truvada’s components, tenofovir, and started sequencing the microbiome. Pretty soon, a clear picture emerged. Women with Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes showed “quite a reasonable effectiveness from tenofovir,” he said. “But in women without Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes, tenofovir had almost no benefit.”
Gardnerella was just gobbling up the tenofovir. It was taking it inside the cell, so it wasn’t available to protect against HIV.”

So what gives? To find out, they took cultures of Lactobacillus and the other bacterial strains prevalent in the women’s microbiomes and they exposed them to tenofovir. With Lactobacillus? There was almost no effect. The Lactobacillus just sat there, and so did the tenofovir. They coexisted happily. With Gardnerella? Within four hours, half of the tenofovir disappeared. Within 24 hours, almost all of it was gone.

“I was just floored,” said Karim. “Gardnerella was just gobbling up the tenofovir. It was taking it inside the cell, so it wasn’t available to protect against HIV.”


Whether this finding genuinely answers the question of why women have to be so perfectly adherent to Truvada to achieve the same protection as gay men will require further study. CAPRISA’s results were based on tests done in a lab—the real proof will come when researchers treat for Gardnerella and watch how that changes the effectiveness of Truvada in women. Just such a study, on periodic treatment of BV and its affect on other STIs, is underway in Kenya.

Jared Baeten, vice chair of global health at the University of Washington and one of the investigators of the PARTNERS PrEP prevention trial and demonstration project, said that their studies have shown that Truvada has virtually eliminated HIV acquisition in women in their studies. So Gardnerella may not impact the protection women get from oral PrEP.

“I think the results will probably be most relevant to local application of tenofovir in gel form,” he said. “[CAPRISA’s] results are very important for thinking about which medicines to use as microbicides”–that is, topical prevention medicines, like the tenofovir gel.

Still, the results could change how policy makers scale up HIV prevention. In the middle of explaining these results last week, Karim interrupted the conversation to take a call from Dr. Margaret Chan, director-general at the World Health Organization.

A Healthier Future


The good news is that diagnosing and treating BV is simple and inexpensive, even without diagnosing and treating specific strains. You can buy a pH testing kit at a pharmacy and, if the pH is above 4.5, Karim said, you can get a prescription for metronidazole (Flagyl) and treat it yourself. Getting Lactobacillus into one’s microbiome is a little trickier, though researchers are trying to devise a variety of solutions to that problem now.

All this may mean, for Ncube and other women like her, that there’s another tool they can use to keep themselves safe, forever, from HIV. When she spoke to PBS NewsHour, Ncube didn’t know about Karim’s results, and it was unclear if she’d ever been tested or treated for BV. For now, Ncube will keep doing what she can do to protect herself. And when she looks ahead, she said cheerfully, she will keep going, keep protecting herself. She’s willing, for instance, to keep taking the pills as long as it takes for the epidemic to change.

“Forever,” she said, “Yeah, I’m willing to take it as long as it [HIV] lasts.”

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/bacteria-stoking-hiv-cases-blocking-hiv-treatment/
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #130 on: 29-10-2016, 05:47:28 »
New Study Shows HIV Epidemic Started Spreading in New York in 1970 
 
Quote

A new genetic study confirms theories that the global epidemic of HIV and AIDS started in New York around 1970, and it also clears the name of a gay flight attendant long vilified as being "Patient Zero."
Researchers got hold of frozen samples of blood taken from patients years before the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS was ever recognized, and teased out genetic material from the virus from that blood.
They use it to show that HIV was circulating widely during the 1970s, and certainly before people began noticing a "gay plague" in New York in the early 1980s.
"We can date the jump into the U.S. in about 1970 and 1971," Michael Worobey, an expert on the evolution of viruses at the University of Arizona, told reporters in a telephone briefing.
"HIV had spread to a large number of people many years before AIDS was noticed."
Their findings also suggest HIV moved from New York to San Francisco in about 1976, they report in the journal Nature.
 
"New York City acts as a hub from which the virus moves to the west coast," Worobey said.
"HIV had spread to a large number of people many years before AIDS was noticed."
Their findings confirm widespread theories that HIV first leapt from apes to humans in Africa around the beginning of the 20th century and circulated in central Africa before hitting the Caribbean in the 1960s. The genetic evidence supports the theory that the virus came from the Caribbean, perhaps Haiti, to New York in 1970. From there it spread explosively before being exported to Europe, Australia and Asia.
HIV now infects more than 36 million people worldwide. About 35 million have died from AIDS, according to the United Nations AIDS agency. Two million are infected every year and more than 1 million died of it last year.
Related: New HIV Vaccine Will be Tested in South Africa
In the United States, more than 1.2 million people have HIV, and about 50,000 people are newly infected each year. More than two dozen medications now on the market can keep infected people healthy, and can prevent infection, but there is no vaccine and there is no cure.
Researchers now know a lot about HIV and how it attacks the body's immune cells, gradually destroying the immune system. It takes about 10 years or so for untreated and undiagnosed patients to realize something is badly wrong as they develop AIDS-defining illnesses such as Kaposi's sarcoma, a rare form of cancer, or pneumonia, or as they succumb to tuberculosis.
It infects men, women and children alike, is passed to newborns from infected mothers, and spreads like wildfire in infected needles shared by drug users.
But in the early 1980s in New York and San Francisco, all people knew was that something mysterious was killing gay men.
"Death and dying was such a part of our daily lives."
"In New York City, the virus encountered a population that was like dry tinder, causing the epidemic to burn hotter and faster and infecting enough people that it grabs the world's attention for the first time," Worobey said in a statement.
"Death and dying was such a part of our daily lives," said Sean Strub, a writer and activist who has been HIV positive since the 1980s.
Related: Drugs Make HIV Hard to Transmit
Once the virus was identified, researchers could start working on treatments and diagnostic tests. And specialists like Worobey could look at the genetics of the virus itself to find its origins.
But no one had samples of HIV infected blood from before the 1980s.
Worobey's team got nine samples and sequenced the RNA from eight of them. It wasn't easy to get and was damaged, so they used new techniques similar to those used to reconstruct DNA from ancient Neanderthal remains.
The different mutations in the genetic material — DNA from people, RNA from the virus — can provide a genetic clock. The more diversity, the more time a virus has been circulating and acquiring small mutations.
"That information is stamped into the RNA of the virus from 1970," Worobey said.
"Our analysis shows that the outbreaks in California that first caused people to ring the alarm bells and led to the discovery of AIDS were really just offshoots of the earlier outbreak that we see in New York City."
Related: AIDS Activists Still Fight Stigma
Other experts not involved in the research called it impressive.
"For the first time, they found and characterized samples that had a date on the tube that preceded the discovery of the disease," said Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who studies the genetics and evolution of HIV and other infectious agents at the University of Pennsylvania.
"They had tubes with 1978, 1979 written on them," she added. "That was something very powerful."
If someone directly infects someone else with a virus, usually it's easy to tell from the genetic sequence. Samples taken from each person will be very close genetically, if not identical. Because the HIV viruses taken from the different samples showed many different mutations, that shows HIV had been infecting many people for quite a time.
Related: Black Gay, Bisexual Men Have 50 Percent Risk of HIV
"This means this virus was in this country way before the disease was recognized," Hahn said.
"By the time people discovered the disease as a completely new entity that came out of the blue and killed people left and right for really unknown reasons, the disease had already been in this country for 10 years prior. That's a little sobering."
Using their genetic clock, Worobey's team showed the virus infecting men in the 1970s in San Francisco had fewer mutations. "Compared to NYC, the San Francisco epidemic in 1978 appeared to have been established more recently," they wrote.
"This suggests that the bulk of the HIV-1 infections in San Francisco in 1978 traced back to a single introduction from New York City in around 1976."
"I think in many ways this paper may be one of the last pieces, if not the last piece in the puzzle."
The Worobey team also sequenced samples of virus taken from Gaetan Dugas, a Canadian flight attendant named as "Patient Zero." Dugas died in 1984 and stunned researchers when he told them he'd had about 250 sexual partners a year between 1979 and 1981, although it later became clear that was not uncommon.
Related: Southern, Gay Men Have High HIV Rate
The sequences make it clear he was a victim of an epidemic that had already been raging, and not its originator, Worobey said.
"It's shocking how this man's name has been sullied and destroyed by this incorrect history," said Peter Staley, a former Wall Street bond trader who became an AIDS activist in New York in the 1980s.
"He was not Patient Zero and this study confirms it through genetic analysis," Staley told NBC News.
"No one should be blamed for the spread of viruses," Worobey said.
He said he hopes the techniques his team used can help explain the patterns of other epidemics, such as Ebola, SARS and Zika.
"I think in many ways this paper may be one of the last pieces, if not the last piece in the puzzle," Hahn said. "I am a believer of putting the last nail into the coffin. And I believe that is what was done here."
 

 
Donekle povezana epizoda Radiolab podkasta koja se bavi patient zero fenomenom i kači i ovo:
 
 
http://www.radiolab.org/story/169879-patient-zero/

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #131 on: 29-10-2016, 13:15:02 »
u svemu je najzanimljivije kako lako su čoveka proglasili za nultog pacijenta.
jedno slovo O koje je neko utripovano pametan proglasio za nulu (i sigurno bio ponosan na sebe  :mrgreen: ) u kombinaciji sa konzervativnim pogledom na "em gej, em highly promiskuitetna osoba" (koja je znala imena svojih seksualnih partnera) dovelo je do čoveka koji je bio kriv za sve!  :lol: :lol: :lol:

Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #132 on: 29-10-2016, 13:25:44 »
Da su samo znali da tad zabrane propagiranje homoseksualizma, kao, recimo Rusi, svega ovoga ne bi bilo!!!!!!!!!

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #133 on: 29-10-2016, 13:32:16 »
a sad kao posledicu imamo i zoofiliju i mutirane crnce!  xrofl

šalu na stranu, taj "optužujem te ne na osnovu činjenica već na osnovu onoga što moj skučeni um misli da su činjenice o tvom ponašanju" je fascinantan fenomen. ako ikako nađeš vremena da odgledaš docu o amandi knox (netflix), obrati pažnju na glavnog novinara i glavnog inspektora. majko najmilija. čak i ne ulazim u to da li je kriva ili ne. :lol:
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #134 on: 29-10-2016, 13:58:39 »
Videćemo da li to srpski Netflix ima u ponudi!!!!!!!!!

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #135 on: 05-12-2016, 09:15:08 »
englezi se izborili za prep! :)
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-38183672

čujem da će fond pokrivati troškove za truvadu u srbiji i to me jako obradovalo. mehane, znaš li nešto detaljnije o tome? anyone?
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #136 on: 05-12-2016, 09:40:30 »
Ne, prekjuče sam pričao sa bivšom koleginicom koja je još aktivna u HIV-u i situacija je za sada prilično status quo - terapije ima, testova i dalje nema koliko treba, čuvaju se ko oči u glavi itd... Truvada nisam čuo da se pominje, al to ne znači da se to ne događa...

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #137 on: 15-04-2017, 05:48:46 »
englezi se izborili za prep! :)
Ali u Kanadi:
 
 HIV Infection Reported in Patient Who Was Taking PrEP?
 
Quote

The first case of HIV contracted by a person taking the PrEP drug regimen has been reported. PrEP is designed to prevent HIV infection, but one man in Canada reportedly contracted a rare, multi-drug-resistant strain of HIV in spite of taking PrEP.
“Does this ‘failure’ change anything at all?” asks ER Physician Dr. Travis Stork. Gastroenterologist Dr. Jorge Rodriguez was at the International AIDS Conference in Boston when the news broke, and explains, “PrEP is a technique, it isn’t a pill. It stands for ‘pre-exposure prophylaxis.’ You’re taking something before you’re exposed to it. For people at high risk for HIV, if they take one pill a day they’re 97 percent less likely to catch HIV if they engage in the most unsafe sexual habit.”
Because many people are now on PrEP, the incidence of new infections and the number of people becoming HIV positive has dropped tremendously.
Watch: States with Highest STDs
“All of these studies are showing it’s 97 percent effective -- not 100 percent,” notes Dr. Rodriguez. “So this wasn’t a surprise.”
Dr. Stork observes that one of the concerns when PrEP was introduced was that patients would no longer practice safe sex. And this does seem to be happening – rates for most STDs have gone up.
Urologist Dr. Jennifer Berman is concerned about the drug-resistant HIV strain. She asks, “Did that guy trace back who he had slept with who may have carried the resistant strain?” Dr. Rodriguez says they don’t know who he contracted the virus from.
Watch: Father Injects Son with HIV!
Finally, Dr. Rodriguez cautions that HIV isn’t the only virus people need to worry about. “I’m pro-PrEP, don’t get me wrong …” “… because it’s an additional layer of protection,” finishes Dr. Stork. “For one particular virus, not for all the STDs out there.” People on PrEP still need to take precautions.
Dr. Berman wonders about monogamous couples where one partner is infected with HIV and the other isn’t. “That would be a great situation for PrEP,” agrees Dr. Rodriguez.
The final word is that PrEP is highly effective, but it’s not a magic bullet. The safest thing to do is to combine it with standard safe-sex practices – and lower your odds of contracting all STDs, including HIV.
 

....

  • 4
  • 3
  • Posts: 13.197
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #138 on: 17-04-2017, 09:11:45 »
najbolja vakcina je pamet u glavu.
kad upoznate osobu koja patoloski namuvava seksualne partnere, sve u rizicnim skupinama, NE ulazite u odnos.
jednostavno.

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #139 on: 05-05-2017, 07:48:56 »
CRISPR Eliminates HIV in Live Animals



Quote
Due to their innate nature to hide away and remain latent for extended periods of time, HIV infections have proven notoriously difficult to eliminate. Yet now, new data released from a research team led by investigators at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University (LKSOM) and the University of Pittsburgh shows that HIV DNA can be excised from the genomes of living animals to eliminate further infection. Additionally, the researchers are the first to perform this feat in three different animal models, including a "humanized" model in which mice were transplanted with human immune cells and infected with the virus. Findings from the new study were published recently in Molecular Therapy in an article entitled “In Vivo Excision of HIV-1 Provirus by saCas9 and Multiplex Single-Guide RNAs in Animal Models.”     
 This is the first study to demonstrate that HIV-1 replication can be completely shut down and the virus eliminated from infected cells in animals with a powerful gene-editing technology known as CRISPR/Cas9. The new work builds on a previous proof-of-concept study that the team published in 2016, in which they used transgenic rat and mouse models with HIV-1 DNA incorporated into the genome of every tissue of the animals' bodies. They demonstrated that their strategy could delete the targeted fragments of HIV-1 from the genome in most tissues in the experimental animals.
 "Our new study is more comprehensive," noted co-senior study author Wenhui Hu, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor in the Center for Metabolic Disease Research and the department of pathology at LKSOM. "We confirmed the data from our previous work and improved the efficiency of our gene-editing strategy. We also show that the strategy is effective in two additional mouse models, one representing acute infection in mouse cells and the other representing chronic, or latent, infection in human cells."
 In this new study, the LKSOM team genetically inactivated HIV-1 in transgenic mice, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60% to 95%—confirming their earlier findings. They then tested their system in mice acutely infected with EcoHIV, the mouse equivalent of human HIV-1.

 "During acute infection, HIV actively replicates," explained co-senior study investigator Kamel Khalili, Ph.D., professor and chair of the department of neuroscience at LKSOM. "With EcoHIV mice, we were able to investigate the ability of the CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to block viral replication and potentially prevent systemic infection." The excision efficiency of their strategy reached 96% in EcoHIV mice, providing the first evidence for HIV-1 eradication by prophylactic treatment with a CRISPR/Cas9 system.
 In the third animal model, a latent HIV-1 infection was recapitulated in humanized mice engrafted with human immune cells, including T cells, followed by HIV-1 infection. "These animals carry latent HIV in the genomes of human T cells, where the virus can escape detection, Dr. Hu explained. Amazingly, after a single treatment with CRISPR/Cas9, viral fragments were successfully excised from latently infected human cells embedded in mouse tissues and organs.
 In all three animal models, the researchers employed a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector delivery system based on a subtype known as AAV-DJ/8. "The AAV-DJ/8 subtype combines multiple serotypes, giving us a broader range of cell targets for the delivery of our CRISPR/Cas9 system," remarked Dr. Hu. Additionally, the researchers re-engineered their previous gene-editing apparatus to now carry a set of four guide RNAs, all designed to efficiently excise integrated HIV-1 DNA from the host cell genome and avoid potential HIV-1 mutational escape.
 To determine the success of the strategy, the team measured levels of HIV-1 RNA and used a novel and cleverly designed live bioluminescence imaging system. "The imaging system, developed by Dr. Won-Bin Young while at the University of Pittsburgh, pinpoints the spatial and temporal location of HIV-1-infected cells in the body, allowing us to observe HIV-1 replication in real time and to essentially see HIV-1 reservoirs in latently infected cells and tissues," stated Dr. Khalili.
 The researchers were excited by their findings and are optimistic about their next steps. “The next stage would be to repeat the study in primates, a more suitable animal model where HIV infection induces disease, in order to further demonstrate the elimination of HIV-1 DNA in latently infected T cells and other sanctuary sites for HIV-1, including brain cells," Dr. Khalili concluded. "Our eventual goal is a clinical trial in human patients."

Meho Krljic

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 49.885
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #140 on: 25-09-2017, 07:56:07 »

lilit

  • 5
  • 3
  • Posts: 10.083
Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #141 on: 26-09-2017, 07:19:35 »
lepo.
problem je samo u tome da je hiv virus i da neutrališuća antitela nisu dovoljna za odbranu.
imunski sistem se deli (najjednostavnije) na humoralni (antitela) i celularni (razne ćelije, pa i limfociti).
za toksine i ekstracelularne bakterije, humoralni je obično dovoljan. za viruse i intracelularne bakterije nam je potreban i humoralni al najviše celularni.
plus, hiv konstantno mutira.
u najboljem slučaju, doći ćemo do smanjenja verovatnoće da ćemo se inficirati ako imamo ta antitela. do eradikacije virusa je put dugačak, al zanimljiv! :)
Some things you have to do yourself.