Author Topic: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda  (Read 13458 times)

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Gaff

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Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light
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The behavior studied in today's published report is quite subtle: two monkeys were trained to purposefully move their eyes to a target on a screen when given a cue. But when the relevant optogenetically ready modified neurons were stimulated by light from optical fibers inserted into their brains, the neuronal circuit responsible was sped up, and the monkeys were able to complete this task faster.
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/428622/scientists-control-monkeys-brains-with-light/
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Rat cyborg gets digital cerebellum
« Reply #1 on: 07-08-2012, 16:36:42 »
Rat cyborg gets digital cerebellum

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AN ARTIFICIAL cerebellum has restored lost brain function in rats, bringing the prospect of cyborg-style brain implants a step closer to reality. Such implants could eventually be used to replace areas of brain tissue damaged by stroke and other conditions, or even to enhance healthy brain function and restore learning processes that decline with age.


http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21128315.700-rat-cyborg-gets-digital-cerebellum.html
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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We're one step closer to building artificial cells
« Reply #2 on: 09-08-2012, 12:22:13 »
Quote
Synthetic biologists have found a new way to assemble "genetic circuits," components that perform logical operations in living cells.


http://io9.com/synthetic-biology/
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Meho Krljic

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Evo nešto što spada u ostala čuda: Diznijevi R&D inženjeri od biljaka prave... er... daljinske upravljače? Muzičke instrumente?
 
"BOTANICUS INTERACTICUS": Interactive Plant Technology

Gaff

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Watch what happens when you play Cypress Hill through a squid’s fin

http://io9.com/5937406/watch-what-happens-when-you-play-cypress-hill-through-a-squids-fin
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Biki

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Watch what happens when you play Cypress Hill through a squid’s fin

http://io9.com/5937406/watch-what-happens-when-you-play-cypress-hill-through-a-squids-fin


Sto bi rekli Red Hot Chilli Peppers u pesmi Can't stop

"Music the great communicator
Use two sticks to make it in the nature "   :!:

Gaff

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Naučnici sada mogu da očitaju reakciju veštačko stvorenog tkiva na neke spoljne stimule pomoću silikonske mreže na koje je ovo tkivo nasađeno (via io9).
 
Ukratko:
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Starting with a two-dimensional sheet, the researchers laid out a mesh of organic polymer around tiny wires — wires that would later serve as the critical sensing elements. Then, nanoscale electrodes were built within the mesh, thus allowing the nanowire transistors to measure the activity of the cells. After this was done, the substrate melted away, leaving a netlike material that could be folded or rolled into any number of three-dimensional shapes.
As hoped, the material was spongy and porous enough to be seeded with heart and nerve cells — and to allow those cells to grow in 3-D cultures. This was the first time that the researchers were able to work outside of 2-D limitations.
Moreover, the researchers were also able to detect electrical signals generated by cells deep within the tissue, and to measure changes in those signals facilitated by cardio- or neuro-stimulating drugs. And remarkably, they were also able to construct bioengineered blood vessels which were in turn used to measure pH changes — the kind of responses that would typically be seen when tissue responds to inflammation or ischemia.
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Researchers engineer light-activated skeletal muscle

Technique may enable robotic animals that move with the strength and flexibility of their living counterparts.


(via MIT News)

Quote
Normally, neurons act to excite muscles, sending electrical impulses that cause a muscle to contract. In the lab, researchers have employed electrodes to stimulate muscle fibers with small amounts of current. But Asada says such a technique, while effective, is unwieldy. Moreover, he says, electrodes, along with their power supply, would likely bog down a small robot.

Instead, Asada and his colleagues looked to a relatively new field called optogenetics, invented in 2005 by MIT’s Ed Boyden and Karl Deisseroth from Stanford University, who genetically modified neurons to respond to short laser pulses. Since then, researchers have used the technique to stimulate cardiac cells to twitch.

Asada’s team looked for ways to do the same with skeletal muscle cells. The researchers cultured such cells, or myoblasts, genetically modifying them to express a light-activated protein. The group fused myoblasts into long muscle fibers, then shone 20-millisecond pulses of blue light into the dish. They found that the genetically altered fibers responded in spatially specific ways: Small beams of light shone on just one fiber caused only that fiber to contract, while larger beams covering multiple fibers stimulated all those fibers to contract.


http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/mechanical-engineers-create-light-activated-skeletal-muscle-0830.html



Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Fraktali via Google Earth.


(via Paul Bourke)

http://paulbourke.net/fractals/googleearth/
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

дејан

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #10 on: 11-09-2012, 13:46:12 »
^ из неког разлога те сличице се налазе и овде међ глупостима, али ја тад нисам разумео штос

http://www.znaksagite.com/diskusije/index.php/topic,8324.msg454610.html#msg454610


едит.
мислим, не разумем га ни сада  :lol:
...barcode never lies
FLA

Gaff

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #11 on: 12-09-2012, 11:15:08 »
New Spray Containing Neonatal Cells Helps Skin Heal Faster

(via Singularity Hub)

Quote
Another group of scientists are trying to bottle the miracle of regenerative medicine. A new skin cell spray was shown to improve the conventional treatment for leg ulcers. When applied prior to wrapping the leg with compression bandages, the spray both improved the extent of healing and did it in less time than healing with bandages alone. The impressive results could also mean the end of skin grafting, an alternative to compression bandages that is painful and the benefits of which are often inconsistent.

...

The spray itself is comprised of two types of skin cells collected from the foreskin of babies: keratinocytes and fibroblasts, the cell types that become dysfunctional in chronic skin ulcers. These neonatal keratinocytes and fibroblasts are dosed with radiation shortly after being collected to stop them from growing. Mixed in is a protein-clotting solution that works with the cells to create a self-assembling matrix that promotes healing.

...

It might seem counterintuitive to treat dysfunctional cells that aren’t growing anymore with more cells that are no longer growing. But the idea is not to replace the dysfunctional cells with new ones but to jump-start the original ones back into action. Although they are growth arrested, the new, irradiated cells are thought to continue to release chemicals that could prod dysfunctional cells back to health.


http://singularityhub.com/2012/09/11/new-spray-containing-neonatal-cells-helps-skin-heal-faster/


Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

mac

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #12 on: 13-09-2012, 01:09:09 »
Naučnik Rič Teril teoretiše da je čitav naš svet simulacija nekog drugog super-sveta. Svaki paranoik koji drži do sebe ima sličnu teoriju, ali ovaj lik ima i naučnu zaleđinu.

http://www.vice.com/read/whoa-dude-are-we-inside-a-computer-right-now-0000329-v19n9

Gaff

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #13 on: 13-09-2012, 07:11:34 »
Manje-više Trinaesti Sprat.


Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #14 on: 14-11-2012, 10:28:52 »
Nažalost, vrlo slabo objašnjen tekst, ali ipak, konotacije su... ogromne:
 
 Vegetative man tells doctors ‘I’m not in pain’ via MRI communication 
Quote

More than 12 years after a car accident left him in a vegetative state, a Canadian man has begun communicating with doctors who are monitoring his brain activity through Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans.
The BBC reports that 39-year-old Scott Routley has been able to communicate to doctors that he is not in any pain, marking the first time an uncommunicative, severely brain-damaged patient has been able to give direct answers regarding their care and treatment.
"Scott has been able to show he has a conscious, thinking mind," British neuroscientist Adrian Owen told the BBC. "We have scanned him several times and his pattern of brain activity shows he is clearly choosing to answer our questions. We believe he knows who and where he is."
Owen leads a team at the Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, which used MRI scans to measure responses from Routley.
Traditional tests have continued to indicate that Routley is in a vegetative state, with no relevant brain activity. Owen and other doctors say this means medical text books will literally need to be re-written when it comes to evaluating patients suffering from severe brain injuries.
Routley's previous neurologist said that for a decade all test results taken from scans of Routley's brain indicated he was not experiencing any mental activity.
"I was impressed and amazed that he was able to show these cognitive responses, said University Hospital's Bryan Young. "He had the clinical picture of a typical vegetative patient and showed no spontaneous movements that looked meaningful."
Owen says the results could lead to improved patient care for those living with severe brain injuries, making a major improvement in the daily of patients, including routine tasks such as when they prefer to be fed or bathed.
And since fMRI scans do not use radiation and are considered easy to use by trained technicians, it's likely doctors could use them to communicate with patients on a regular basis.
 

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Kada šimpanze prvi put vide nebo...
« Reply #16 on: 09-03-2013, 10:17:49 »

Kada šimpanze prvi put vide nebo...



Chimps: A New Life, Retirement


Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #18 on: 17-03-2013, 11:38:17 »

Izumrla vrsta žabe vraćena (kajnda) međ' žive

via Sydney Morning Herald




Detaljnije (i zašto kajnda)

Quote
Every time the team has done this, the ball of cells starts to turn inwards on itself—a crucial moment called gastrulation—and stops. That’s where they are for now. They have the beginnings of a gastric brooding frog, but are a long way from even a simple tadpole.

via national Geographic

Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Irena Adler

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #22 on: 18-04-2013, 14:26:32 »
Tasp.  :-|

zakk

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #23 on: 18-04-2013, 15:09:33 »
Tasp.  :-|


Argh, sad mi se čita Niven -_-
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.


дејан

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #25 on: 18-04-2013, 15:27:05 »
правда за мушице!
...barcode never lies
FLA

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #28 on: 13-05-2013, 17:52:09 »

Pravda za voćne mušice iliti zašto nervirati te jadne insekte


Your brain is more than a bag of chemicals - David Anderson
Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

mac

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #30 on: 16-05-2013, 21:13:47 »
Naučnici stimuliraju mozak slabim strujama i čine ga efikasnijim u kompleksnim funkcijama

http://io9.com/new-brain-stimulation-technique-makes-you-better-at-mat-506925851

Gaff

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Sum, ergo cogito, ergo dubito.

дејан

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #32 on: 31-03-2014, 16:29:26 »
дејвид брин се радује, научници превели делфински !!!11
...barcode never lies
FLA

дејан

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #33 on: 17-09-2014, 10:50:16 »
хм, гафф ми баш недостаје, штета што је отишао...

паметни(ји) мишОви виа ио9 и остали

уместо увода:
овакви текстови овог морона дворског су једини које могу да поднесем (тј углавном копи-пејст са неког озбиљног сајта), ја бих га послао у крекд да тамо смрди - квалитет његових коментара озбиљно урушава ионако окруњен квалитет ио9

Mice With Genetically "Humanized" Brains Learn Faster
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It's not quite a Pinky and the Brain scenario, but researchers from MIT and several European universities have spliced a human gene responsible for speech and language into mice — a bit of biological uplift that made the mice smarter in certain ways.

This is not the first time that the intelligence of an animal has been augmented by scientists. Back in 2012, rhesus monkeys were given a brain implant that improved certain aspects of their thinking. And last year, scientists enhanced the intelligence of mice with human glial cells.

But this new experiment is unique in that (1) it's at the genetic level and (2) it's the first to assess how partially "humanizing" the brains of mice affects key cognitive functions. In this case, hundreds of mice were genetically engineered to carry the human version of FOXP2, a gene linked to speech and language.

Researchers Ann Graybiel and her colleagues found that this genetic change affected the mouse brain's striatum and related cortico-basal ganglia circuits — areas known to be essential for motor and cognitive behaviors such as speech and language capabilities in humans.

For the study, the super-mice were trained to find chocolate milk in a maze. The genetically humanized mice learned the route just as well by seven days as regular mice did by 11. Not bad. MIT News reports:

Quote
The first phase of this type of learning requires using declarative memory, or memory for events and places. Over time, these memory cues become embedded as habits and are encoded through procedural memory — the type of memory necessary for routine tasks, such as driving to work every day or hitting a tennis forehand after thousands of practice strokes.

Using another type of maze called a cross-maze, [the researchers] were able to test the mice's ability in each of type of memory alone, as well as the interaction of the two types. They found that the mice with humanized Foxp2 performed the same as normal mice when just one type of memory was needed, but their performance was superior when the learning task required them to convert declarative memories into habitual routines. The key finding was therefore that the humanized Foxp2 gene makes it easier to turn mindful actions into behavioral routines. [emphasis added]

In other words, the FOXP2 gene accelerates learning in mice by enhancing the transitions from declarative to procedural memory.

And by isolating this one gene, the researchers are not only shedding light on its function, but also on how it may have led to the evolutionary changes that resulted in the unique capabilities of the human brain.

комплетна студија је овде
...barcode never lies
FLA

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #34 on: 14-11-2014, 10:02:39 »
How blind people use batlike sonar


Quote
Blind from infancy due to retinal cancer, Daniel Kish learned as a young boy to judge his height while climbing trees by making rapid clicking noises and listening for their echoes off the ground. No one taught him the technique, which is now recognized as a human form of echolocation. “He just used it, without knowing that he behaved like a bat,” says Lutz Wiegrebe, a neurobiologist at the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany.
Like Kish, a handful of blind echolocators worldwide have taught themselves to use clicks and echoes to navigate their surroundings with impressive ease—Kish can even ride his bike down the street, as his daring YouTube videos show. A study of sighted people newly trained to echolocate now suggests that the secret to Kish’s skill isn’t just supersensitive ears. Instead, the entire body, neck, and head are key to “seeing” with sound—an insight that could assist blind people learning the skill.
Bats and other animals that rely on sounds to detect prey in the dark move their ears much like humans use their eyes to track an object of interest, making constant adjustments to their ear positions. When bats echolocate, they emit rapid-fire, high-frequency clicks (usually out of range of human hearing), then swivel their ears like radar dishes to catch the echoes, a system sensitive enough to detect objects as thin as a human hair and tiny, night-flying insects. Unlike bats’ large, mobile ears, however, human ears are small and fixed—an obstacle to blind people who use their ears to “see.”
To test the extent to which people can compensate for this immobility, Wiegrebe and colleagues recruited eight undergraduates with normal vision to don blindfolds and learn some basic echolocation skills. The students were first taught to produce sharp, high-frequency clicks with their tongues. Then they were blindfolded and led into a long, narrow corridor, where they practiced sensing the position of the walls based on how long it took for an echoed click to reach their ears. Although some people are more naturally talented than others at echolocation, most got “quite good” after 2 to 3 weeks of training, Wiegrebe says, and could reliably orient themselves to walk down the corridor without running into any walls using just clicks and echoes.
Next, the researchers created a virtual version of the corridor to test how important head and body movements, rather than hearing alone, had been to the students’ accuracy. Blindfolded subjects sat in a chair wearing headphones while a computer program simulated the acoustics of the real-life corridor when they clicked into a microphone. To ensure that the acoustics of the simulated room were realistic, the researchers asked two blind echolocation experts to navigate it first; both were quickly able to orient their bodies toward the center of the aisle.
The blindfolded students were also instructed to use their clicks and echoes to line up their bodies with the center of the corridor. In one test, they were told to rotate the virtual corridor without making any head or body movements, using a joystick. In another, the corridor was fixed and participants were allowed to swivel their chairs and heads to determine their position in the room.
The difference between the two conditions was stark, Wiegrebe says. When the participants couldn’t move their heads or torsos, they zigzagged down the virtual hall and were unable to self-correct before hitting a “wall.” When the corridor’s position was fixed and their bodies and heads were free to move, however, the novice echolocators soon righted themselves, the team reports online today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
The virtual corridor is a “very creative” way to determine just how important body movements are to echolocation, says Lore Thaler, a psychologist at Durham University in the United Kingdom. The findings fit well with her own recent study, which showed that head movements can enable blind echolocation experts to sense an object’s contours, she says. The research also provides a new way of studying echolocation that can’t be done in animals, she notes. After all, “a bat can’t use a joystick.”
Echolocation is a skill that has evolved independently several times in the animal kingdom in response to low visibility conditions—whether at night, as with bats and a few nocturnal birds, or in murky water, as with whales and dolphins, Wiegrebe notes. “It’s not magic.” Though the research is still in its early stages, he hopes that a virtual reality program similar to that used in the study will eventually help blind people learn to use echolocation in the safety and privacy of their homes.
 

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #35 on: 04-12-2014, 12:20:12 »
Ovo valjda spada u ostala čuda mada se ne uklapa u originalni ton topika.

Elem, postoji mineral za koji se smatra da čini do jedne trećine zapremine zemljiene kugle (!!!) a koji do pre neki dan nije imao ni ime  :-? :-? :-? :-? niti ga je iko dotakao:



Scientists Have Finally Sampled the Most Abundant Material on Earth



Quote
The most abundant material on Earth didn’t have a name, and, in fact, hadn’t been seen—until now. For the first time ever, scientists have gotten their hands on a sample of bridgmanite, a mineral that is believed to make up more than a third of the volume of the Earth. As you might expect with a seeming paradox like that, bridgmanite exists deep within Earth—it’s the material that is believed to make up the vast majority of the lower mantle, Earth’s widest layer, which runs from roughly 410 to 1,796 miles beneath the Earth’s surface. Overall, it makes up roughly 36 percent of the Earth’s volume.
 But, like many minerals from deep within the planet, scientists had never seen it. In ​a new paper published in Science late last week, Oliver Tschauner of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and his team describe bridgmanite for the first time.
 “Despite appearing for decades in numerous experimental and theoretical studies, characterizations of possible natural samples have not been sufficient to meet International Mineralogical Association criteria for naming new minerals,” Tschauner wrote. “Consequently, any detailed chemical, structural, and petrographic analysis of natural [bridmanite] has remained impossible.”


 We haven’t suddenly figured out how to drill hundreds of miles beneath the Earth’s surface without destroying bridgmanite samples (which are volatile unless highly pressurized by something), and a bridgmanite sample wasn’t launched out of the lower mantle with a volcanic explosion or some other phenomenon. Instead, Tschauner found bridgmanite within a shocked meteorite—one that had undergone an intense, short period of pressurization.
 “Hypervelocity impacts on meteorite parent bodies cause short pulses of very high pressures and locally high temperatures that melt and transform meteoritic materials into the same high-pressure phases that make up the deep Earth,” Thomas Sharp, a researcher at Arizona State University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration ​wrote in an accompanying article about the discovery.
 By looking within shocked meteorites, scientists have been able to observe and categorize a few different deep-Earth minerals. But something from within Earth is obviously preferable. Earlier this year, for instance, scientists ​found the first naturally occurring sample of ringwoodite, which was trapped inside a diamond that had been expelled in Brazil.
 Ringwoodite is a mineral that is prevalent in the “transition zone” between the upper and lower mantles. Within that sample, scientists found trapped water, a finding that suggests there is a subterranean ocean that may hold more water than all of Earth’s oceans combined.
 Tschauner’s description of bridgmanite gives us no such insights about the inside of the Earth, other than to confirm what scientists believed to have been true for quite some time: The mineral exists, and it can occur naturally under highly pressurized conditions.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #36 on: 26-01-2015, 07:28:50 »
Millions of GMO insects could be released in Florida Keys
 
Quote

KEY WEST, Fla. (AP) — Millions of genetically modified mosquitoes could be released in the Florida Keys if British researchers win approval to use the bugs against two extremely painful viral diseases. Never before have insects with modified DNA come so close to being set loose in a residential U.S. neighborhood.
"This is essentially using a mosquito as a drug to cure disease," said Michael Doyle, executive director of the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District, which is waiting to hear if the Food and Drug Administration will allow the experiment.
Dengue and chikungunya are growing threats in the U.S., but some people are more frightened at the thought of being bitten by a genetically modified organism. More than 130,000 people signed a Change.org petition against the experiment.
Even potential boosters say those responsible must do more to show that benefits outweigh the risks of breeding modified insects that could bite people.
"I think the science is fine, they definitely can kill mosquitoes, but the GMO issue still sticks as something of a thorny issue for the general public," said Phil Lounibos, who studies mosquito control at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory.
 
Mosquito controllers say they're running out of options. With climate change and globalization spreading tropical diseases farther from the equator, storm winds, cargo ships and humans carry these viruses to places like Key West, the southernmost city in the continental U.S.
There are no vaccines or cures for dengue, known as "break-bone fever," or chikungunya, so painful it causes contortions. U.S. cases remain rare.
Insecticides are sprayed year-round in the Keys' charming and crowded neighborhoods. But Aedes aegypti, whose biting females spread these diseases, have evolved to resist four of the six insecticides used to kill them.
Enter Oxitec, a British biotech firm that patented a method of breeding Aedes aegypti with fragments of genes from the herpes simplex virus and E. coli bacteria as well as coral and cabbage. This synthetic DNA is commonly used in laboratory science and is thought to pose no significant risks to other animals, but it kills mosquito larvae.
Oxitec's lab workers manually remove modified females, aiming to release only males, which don't bite for blood like females do. The modified males then mate with wild females whose offspring die, reducing the population.
 
Oxitec has built a breeding lab in Marathon and hopes to release its mosquitoes in a Key West neighborhood this spring.
FDA spokeswoman Theresa Eisenman said no field tests will be allowed until the agency has "thoroughly reviewed all the necessary information."
Company spokeswoman Chris Creese said the test will be similar in size to Oxitec's 2012 experiment in the Cayman Islands, where 3.3 million modified mosquitoes were released over six months, suppressing 96 percent of the targeted bugs. Oxitec says a later test in Brazil also was successful, and both countries now want larger-scale projects.
But critics accused Oxitec of failing to obtain informed consent in the Caymans, saying residents weren't told they could be bitten by a few stray females overlooked in the lab.
Instead, Oxitec said only non-biting males would be released, and that even if humans were somehow bitten, no genetically modified DNA would enter their bloodstream.
 
Neither claim is entirely true, outside observers say.
"I'm on their side, in that consequences are highly unlikely. But to say that there's no genetically modified DNA that might get into a human, that's kind of a gray matter," said Lounibos.
Creese says Oxitec has now released 70 million of its mosquitoes in several countries and received no reports of human impacts caused by bites or from the synthetic DNA, despite regulatory oversight that encourages people to report any problems. "We are confident of the safety of our mosquito, as there's no mechanism for any adverse effect on human health. The proteins are non-toxic and non-allergenic," she said.
Oxitec should still do more to show that the synthetic DNA causes no harm when transferred into humans by its mosquitoes, said Guy Reeves, a molecular geneticist at Germany's Max Planck Institute.
Key West resident Marilyn Smith wasn't persuaded after Oxitec's presentation at a public meeting. She says neither disease has had a major outbreak yet in Florida, so "why are we being used as the experiment, the guinea pigs, just to see what happens?"
 

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #37 on: 28-01-2015, 11:41:38 »
Chemists find a way to unboil eggs



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Univ. of California, Irvine (UC Irvine) and Australian chemists have figured out how to unboil egg whites—an innovation that could dramatically reduce costs for cancer treatments, food production and other segments of the $160 billion global biotechnology industry, according to findings published in ChemBioChem.
“Yes, we have invented a way to unboil a hen egg,” said Gregory Weiss, UCI professor of chemistry and molecular biology & biochemistry. “In our paper, we describe a device for pulling apart tangled proteins and allowing them to refold. We start with egg whites boiled for 20 min at 90 C and return a key protein in the egg to working order.”
Like many researchers, he has struggled to efficiently produce or recycle valuable molecular proteins that have a wide range of applications but which frequently “misfold” into structurally incorrect shapes when they are formed, rendering them useless.
“It’s not so much that we’re interested in processing the eggs; that’s just demonstrating how powerful this process is,” Weiss said. “The real problem is there are lots of cases of gummy proteins that you spend way too much time scraping off your test tubes, and you want some means of recovering that material.”
But older methods are expensive and time-consuming: The equivalent of dialysis at the molecular level must be done for about four days. “The new process takes minutes,” Weiss noted. “It speeds things up by a factor of thousands.”
To re-create a clear protein known as lysozyme once an egg has been boiled, he and his colleagues add a urea substance that chews away at the whites, liquefying the solid material. That’s half the process; at the molecular level, protein bits are still balled up into unusable masses. The scientists then employ a vortex fluid device, a high-powered machine designed by Prof. Colin Raston’s laboratory at South Australia’s Flinders Univ. Shear stress within thin, microfluidic films is applied to those tiny pieces, forcing them back into untangled, proper form.
“This method … could transform industrial and research production of proteins,” the researchers write in ChemBioChem.
For example, pharmaceutical companies currently create cancer antibodies in expensive hamster ovary cells that do not often misfold proteins. The ability to quickly and cheaply re-form common proteins from yeast or E. coli bacteria could potentially streamline protein manufacturing and make cancer treatments more affordable. Industrial cheese makers, farmers and others who use recombinant proteins could also achieve more bang for their buck.
UCI has filed for a patent on the work, and its Office of Technology Alliances is working with interested commercial partners.
Source: Univ. of California, Irvine

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #38 on: 20-03-2015, 11:05:35 »
I ovo su neka ostala čuda. Mislim, u toku je solidno kvalitetno pomračenje Sunca a poslednje uporedivo je bilo 1999. godine. Tada smo svedočili praznim ulicama naših gradova i sujevernom strahu a sada... sada možemo da gledamo prenos istog putem Interneta. Zbilja živimo u budućnosti:


UŽIVO: Delimično pomračenje Sunca - 20. mart 2015., Niš, Srbija

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #39 on: 21-08-2015, 09:11:18 »
 :-? :-? :-? :-? :-?



First almost fully-formed human brain grown in lab, researchers claim

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Research team say tiny brain could be used to test drugs and study diseases, but scientific peers urge caution as data on breakthrough kept under wraps


An almost fully-formed human brain has been grown in a lab for the first time, claim scientists from Ohio State University. The team behind the feat hope the brain could transform our understanding of neurological disease.
Though not conscious the miniature brain, which resembles that of a five-week-old foetus, could potentially be useful for scientists who want to study the progression of developmental diseases. It could also be used to test drugs for conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, since the regions they affect are in place during an early stage of brain development.
The brain, which is about the size of a pencil eraser, is engineered from adult human skin cells and is the most complete human brain model yet developed, claimed Rene Anand of Ohio State University, Columbus, who presented the work today at the Military Health System Research Symposium in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

               Read more      Previous attempts at growing whole brains have at best achieved mini-organs that resemble those of nine-week-old foetuses, although these “cerebral organoids” were not complete and only contained certain aspects of the brain. “We have grown the entire brain from the get-go,” said Anand.
Anand and his colleagues claim to have reproduced 99% of the brain’s diverse cell types and genes. They say their brain also contains a spinal cord, signalling circuitry and even a retina.

The ethical concerns were non-existent, said Anand. “We don’t have any sensory stimuli entering the brain. This brain is not thinking in any way.”

Anand claims to have created the brain by converting adult skin cells into pluripotent cells: stem cells that can be programmed to become any tissue in the body. These were then grown in a specialised environment that persuaded the stem cells to grow into all the different components of the brain and central nervous system.

According to Anand, it takes about 12 weeks to create a brain that resembles the maturity of a five-week-old foetus. To go further would require a network of blood vessels that the team cannot yet produce. “We’d need an artificial heart to help the brain grow further in development,” said Anand.

Several researchers contacted by the Guardian said it was hard to judge the quality of the work without access to more data, which Anand is keeping under wraps due to a pending patent on the technique. Many were uncomfortable that the team had released information to the press without the science having gone through peer review.

Zameel Cader, a consultant neurologist at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, said that while the work sounds very exciting, it’s not yet possible to judge its impact. “When someone makes such an extraordinary claim as this, you have to be cautious until they are willing to reveal their data.”

If the team’s claims prove true, the technique could revolutionise personalised medicine. “If you have an inherited disease, for example, you could give us a sample of skin cells, we could make a brain and then ask what’s going on,” said Anand.

You could also test the effect of different environmental toxins on the growing brain, he added. “We can look at the expression of every gene in the human genome at every step of the development process and see how they change with different toxins. Maybe then we’ll be able to say ‘holy cow, this one isn’t good for you.’”

For now, the team say they are focusing on using the brain for military research, to understand the effect of post traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injuries.

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #40 on: 24-09-2016, 05:33:22 »
Horses can use symbols to talk to us 
 
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There will never be a horse like Mr. Ed, the talking equine TV star. But scientists have discovered that the animals can learn to use another human tool for communicating: pointing to symbols. They join a short list of other species, including some primates, dolphins, and pigeons, with this talent. Scientists taught 23 riding horses of various breeds to look at a display board with three icons, representing wearing or not wearing a blanket. Horses could choose between a “no change” symbol or symbols for “blanket on” or “blanket off.” Previously, their owners made this decision for them. Horses are adept at learning and following signals people give them, and it took these equines an average of 10 days to learn to approach and touch the board and to understand the meaning of the symbols. All 23 horses learned the entire task within 14 days. They were then tested in various weather conditions to see whether they could use the board to tell their trainers about their blanket preferences. The scientists report online in Applied Animal Behaviour Science that the horses did not touch the symbols randomly, but made their choices based on the weather. If it was wet, cold, and windy, they touched the "blanket on" icon; horses that were already wearing a blanket nosed the “no change” image. But when the weather was sunny, the animals touched the "blanket off" symbol; those that weren’t blanketed pressed the “no change” icon. The study’s strong results show that the horses understood the consequences of their choices, say the scientists, who hope that other researchers will use their method to ask horses more questions.
 

Meho Krljic

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #41 on: 17-10-2016, 08:02:48 »
Ne deluje spektakularno kao druga čuda navedena na ovom topiku ali zapravo je potencijalno vrlo korisno:



 Soybean nitrogen breakthrough could help feed the world


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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #43 on: 27-02-2017, 08:53:02 »
Bees Can Learn to Play “Soccer.” Score One for Insect Intelligence



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Small as they are, bumblebee brains are surprisingly capable of mastering novel, complex tasks

Bees, despite their sesame seed-sized brains, are smarter than we think.


“Often people view insects as unthinking machines,” says Clint Perry, a biologist who studies the evolution of cognition in insects at Queen Mary University of London. Science has recently challenged that human-centric assumption, by revealing that the busy buzzers can use tools, count to four, learn “foreign languages" and even experience some semblance of sugar-derived happiness—traits usually associated with larger-brained animals.
Now, Perry and his colleagues have released the results of a creative new experiment in which they essentially taught bumblebees how to play "bee soccer." The insects’ ability to grasp this novel task is a big score for insect intelligence, demonstrating that they’re even more complex thinkers than we thought. Moreover, they did it all not just in spite of their tiny brains—but because of them.


For the study, published in the February 23 issue of Science, researchers gave a group of bees a novel goal (literally): to move a ball about half their size into a designated target area. The idea was to present them with a task that they would never have encountered in nature. Not only did the bees succeed at this challenge—earning them a sugary treat—but they astonished researchers by figuring out how to meet their new goal in several different ways.
Some bees succeeded at getting their ball into the goal with no demonstration at all, or by first watching the ball move on its own. But the ones that watched other bees successfully complete the game learned to play more quickly and easily. Most impressively, the insects didn't simply copy each other—they watched their companions do it, then figured out on their own how to accomplish the task even more efficiently using their own techniques.
The results show that bees can master complex, social behaviors without any prior experience—which could be a boon in a world where they face vast ecological changes and pressures.
Knowing some of the things bees are capable of might also inspire humans to do a bit more to aid their survival, adds Perry. “We often put ourselves atop a hierarchy, where we're smart and we have large brains, and anything far removed from us physically or morphologically, especially animals with small brains, must be not smart,” he says. “Understanding that bees and different insects have more complex cognitive abilities can allow us to appreciate them more. And it might help our efforts to manage living with them a little better.”


Previous research has shown that bees can learn from one another when performing tasks that resembled the forging and other behaviors they perform in the wild. For example, Perry and colleagues reported last year that bees could teach each other to pull strings attached to faux flowers for a tasty reward. But Perry wanted to test whether bees could truly learn a behavior unlike anything their evolutionary ancestors were likely to have performed.
“Even more complex tasks like communication or navigation are genetically preprogrammed and not really flexible,” he says. “What we really wanted to do is to test something unnatural, as far removed as we could outside what they would normally do.”
Scientists gained some insight on just how the bees learned by changing up the conditions of the game. For some bees, researchers provided no demonstration at all of the game’s objective, but merely a reward if the insect somehow succeeded. Two individuals still figured out the task, but most struggled. Other bees were shown a “ghost demonstration,” in which the ball moved to the goal controlled by a magnet. Around 80 percent of the bees learned to complete the task this way.
The most effective method was having bees learn by watching a previously trained bee perform the task. Every single bee that was taught this way learned the game correctly, and learned more quickly than the others. But the bees not only copied their companions—they also improved on what they'd seen and added their own flair to complete the task more efficiently.
There was one cognitive leap that especially impressed Perry and colleagues. In the bee demonstrations, demonstrator bees were trained with a setup in which only the farthest away of three balls was mobile, meaning they always moved that most distant ball. Untrained bees then watched a demonstrator perform the task in this same way, three times. Yet when they were given a chance to perform it on their own, they moved the closest ball—even though they'd never seen it moved before.
“Yesterday [co-author Olli J. Loukola] and I were wondering whether we would actually pick a closer ball,” Perry says. “If we were in a similar test with basketballs at a gymnasium would we try the closer ball or just go to the one that we saw someone use successfully? I think that I would probably just copy what I saw because I wouldn't want to risk not getting the reward.”


The new study helps demonstrate that how an animal thinks depends on its lifestyle, says Felicity Muth, a bumblebee researcher at the University of Nevada, Reno. Although the ball-rolling behavior isn't part of a bee's life, the cognitive powers that make it possible are a product of that environment, she says.
“We have this assumption that animals that look more like us are capable of complex cognition,” says Muth, who studies the cognitive basis behind bee foraging. “And it doesn't work like that at all. Bees have to learn things constantly … a bee can visit thousands of flowers in a single day and they can learn what colors of flowers have certain rewards. Bees learn shapes, patterns, textures. They can even detect the electromagnetic field of a flower and make associations with different fields.”
NASA has even sent bees into space, and found that they rapidly adapt their flight patterns to a near-zero gravity environment.
David Roubik, a bee expert at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, adds that bees can not only see and imitate another moving object, but they also gather olfactory, tactile and even auditory information as well.
“Learning takes place, for the social bees at least, on the broad stage of foraging and interacting with the outside environment, and doing a variety of other things, in more or less total darkness, within the nest interior,” he notes. “Because the same bee will have both venues to pursue, if it lives long enough, an acute adaptive flexibility is required. This is evidently what has taken place, in a novel new setting, in the bumblebee study reported here.”
Bees are well-known for the social dynamics and swarm intelligence that exists within the hive, a system that Thomas D. Seeley dubbed “honeybee democracy.” In 2010 book by that title, he investigates the bees' heated debates and collective decision making on life and death issues, such as how to choose sites for new colonies and navigate to them en masse. Honeybees are also famed for their booty-shaking method of communication, in which workers use symbolic gestures to describe and recruit others to a particularly tasty food source or promising new nest site.
The insects will need all of these intellectual strengths to deal with the multifaceted threats that have decimated many populations. A two-year study released by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations last year reports that growing numbers of bee and other pollinator species worldwide are threatened by extinction. That’s bad news not just for pollinators, but for us: The same report estimates that 75 percent of the world's food crops depend on pollination, at least in part, and the annual value of the crops directly impacted by pollinators may top $500 billion.
Could bees’ surprising cognitive abilities help them to overcome such vast challenges? Perry says that their flexible minds may well help them adapt in smaller ways, like accessing food in new environments. But when it comes to the larger changes that are reshaping their ecosystems—climate change, pesticides and agricultural or urban development—it’s up to us to do the adapting. “I think most of the bigger problems they face are ones we'll have to deal with,” he says. 



lilit

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Re: Scientists Control Monkeys' Brains with Light i ostala čuda
« Reply #45 on: 12-11-2017, 11:13:28 »
ovo treba pažljivo ispratiti.
Some things you have to do yourself.