Author Topic: AIDS vakcina  (Read 25641 times)

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lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #100 on: 12-06-2015, 09:17:06 »
a neke i pre puberteta
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lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #101 on: 30-12-2015, 18:36:27 »
ameriko, samonapalmuj se

"It's very hard to talk about HIV prevention with someone who is homeless or someone who isn't sure where they're going to find their next meal."

http://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/30/health/hiv-treatment-disparity-us/
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #102 on: 13-01-2016, 08:07:47 »
Charlie Sheen Quits HIV Meds: ‘I Was Born Dead’
Quote

Charlie Sheen admitted on Tuesday that he has been off his HIV medication “for about a week now” and is seeking alternative treatment in Mexico.
“I’ve been off my meds for about a week now,” he said on “The Dr. Oz Show.” “Am I risking my life? Sure. So what? I was born dead. That part of it doesn’t faze me at all.”
The actor also said he is seeking treatment from a physician named Dr. Sam Chachoua, whom Dr. Mehmet Oz says is not licensed to practice medicine in the United States.
 
 
In November, the sitcom star revealed to Matt Lauer on NBC’s “Today” that he was diagnosed with HIV four years ago. During his appearance, he said that doctors found an undetectable amount of the virus in his blood. However, two months later, Sheen told Dr. Oz that he received some terrible news before stepping onto the stage.
“I’m a little off my game, because right before I walked out here, I got some results that I was disappointed about,” he said. “I know this is an experiment, that I took a stroll down a different path. But yeah, I’d been non-detectable and non-detectable and checking the blood every week, and then found out that the numbers were back up.”

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #103 on: 11-02-2016, 17:29:27 »
EAVI2020 is a 23 million euro initiative to accelerate the search for an effective HIV vaccine.
The EAVI2020 consortium, which is led by Imperial College London, brings together leading HIV researchers from public organisations and biotech companies from across Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA, pooling their knowledge and expertise to develop novel candidate vaccines that can be taken through to human trials within five years. EAVI2020 is funded with an EU-grant under the health program of Horizon 2020 for research and innovation.
EAVI2020 is a 23 million euro initiative to accelerate the search for an effective HIV vaccine.
The EAVI2020 consortium, which is led by Imperial College London, brings together leading HIV researchers from public organisations and biotech companies from across Europe, Australia, Canada and the USA, pooling their knowledge and expertise to develop novel candidate vaccines that can be taken through to human trials within five years. EAVI2020 is funded with an EU-grant under the health program of Horizon 2020 for research and innovation.
https://www.imperial.ac.uk/research-and-innovation/support-for-staff/programme-management-office/eu-consortium-management/eavi-2020/
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #104 on: 27-02-2016, 07:52:26 »

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #105 on: 07-05-2016, 21:47:50 »
hm, prođoh topikom i videh da nismo zabeležili da je WHO prošle godine preporučila (na osnovu brojnih studija) da se s antiviralnom terapijom krene čim se sazna da smo HIV+. ranija dogma je bila da se ne kreće pre nego nam CD4+ limfociti ne padnu ispod magične cifre od 500.
problem s HIV infekcijom je što se pokazalo da virus ne targetuje samo šefove imunskog sistema (CD4+ limfociti) već i mnoge druge vojnike plus se zavlači svuda i pravi lom na raznim nivoima.
naravno, terapija košta pa se države ne takmiče ko će prvi implementirati nove preporuke.
novi zeland krenuo tim putem:
http://www.gaynz.com/articles/publish/2/article_18238.php
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #106 on: 07-05-2016, 21:49:44 »
Pa, da, to je toliko novo da nije praktično nigde još krenulo osim u tih par izolovanih slučajeva. Kod nas ne verujem da će da se desi još nekoliko godina.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #107 on: 07-05-2016, 22:04:02 »
krenulo bogami u usa i to vrlo ozbiljno: pouzdan info dobijen u Woodyju (Philly) sve uz mojito i znojna gej tela u okolini :lol:

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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #108 on: 20-05-2016, 11:40:57 »
Scientists Find A “Weak Spot” In HIV That May Pave the Way to a Vaccine



Quote
In Brief Research conducted by a team from the National Institutes of Health reported a new vulnerable site on HIV for vaccines to target. It is based on an antibody from the blood of an HIV-infected patient that binds with the virus and also prevents it from infecting a cell.
 
For decades, scientists all over the world have been concentrating efforts to find a way to deal with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sure, they’ve developed ways to treat the infected and to keep the virus at bay, but true prevention is another case—HIV was clinically observed in 1981 and we still don’t have a vaccine.
But perhaps this new research will finally help eradicate the tricky virus.
 A Weak Spot A recent press release reports that a team of scientists led by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has discovered a new “weak spot” in HIV that vaccines can target. The area, called the fusion peptide, is a simple structure of eight amino acids that helps the virus fuse with a cell.
According to the study, the team used a particularly powerful antibody, called VRC34.01, taken from the blood of an unnamed HIV-positive patient that caught the weak spot in the virus.
It’s not only capable of binding with the virus through the fusion peptide but also preventing it from infecting an entire cell. By crystallizing the binding process right while it was occurring, the scientists were able to observe this phenomenon at a molecular level.

Still Moonshots Away Notably, it was not only this particular patient that possessed the powerful antibody to stop HIV from infecting cells. The researchers screened other HIV-positive volunteers and found that 10 out of 24 of the blood samples followed the same targeting mechanism as VRC34.01.
While everything looks promising, the scientists still need to figure out a way to draw out similar antibodies in other patients that are not fortunate enough to have VRC34.01 in their systems. That would mean animal trials before getting to human testing.
Nonetheless, this is certainly a milestone for those working to eradicate HIV.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #109 on: 20-05-2016, 16:24:44 »
         
ah što volim press releases! :lol:

naravno da bismo da targetujemo ono bitno za host cell - HIV interakciju, al mali problem je što HIV ima toliko različitih mogućnosti i ulazi gde stigne. ovaj rezultat nam kazuje da imaju sekvencu HIV-1 fuzionog peptida, otprilike nekih 15-20 hidrofobnih ostataka koji su locirani na N terminusu glikoproteina 41, inače najslađeg HIV proteina. gp41 sačeka da gp120 odradi vezivanje za npr. CD4 molekul što omogući da gp41 promeni konformaciju i dobijemo Far Cry 3 xuzi

hipoteza je ona stara, ako imamo antitela koja blokiraju fuziju gp41 sa ćelijom domaćina, teoretski (ali samo teoretski :mrgreen: ), HIV neće ući, a ako ne uđe, onda će da crkne. 

šesnaesta priča je ovaj poslednji pasus, mislim, ok, imate tih 15-20 aminokiselina, ali kako ćete od toga da dođete do adekvatog imunogena (ono što pokreće imunski sistem da napravi kakvu takvu odbranu) je solidan problem, etc, etc. 

i think i am still in love with HIV i već je prošlo 25 godina otkako mi je fredi umro :cry:
 
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lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #110 on: 01-06-2016, 16:50:31 »

gud njuz


New U.N. targets for HIV/AIDS treatment expensive, but could save millions of lives


A new study estimates the impact of an initiative of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS known as 90-90-90, and finds that while its targets for HIV testing and treatment will require unprecedented investment, it will increase survival, reduce the number of children orphaned by HIV, and contain the global AIDS epidemic.
The study, co-authored by researchers at the Yale School of Public Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the University of Cape Town, was published in the May 30 online edition of the Annals of Internal Medicine.


Launched in 2014, the 90-90-90 program’s overall goal is to achieve viral suppression — reducing the viral load to an undetectable level — among 73% of HIV-infected persons worldwide by 2020. It is currently estimated that 24% of those with HIV have achieved viral suppression. To meet the goal, the program has three key objectives: diagnosing 90% of HIV-infected persons worldwide; linking 90% of identified cases to antiretroviral therapy (ART); and achieving virologic suppression among 90% of ART recipients.


The researchers used South African epidemiologic data and results from HIV screening and treatment programs to gauge the likely impact of 90-90-90 in South Africa and compared it with the currently projected pace of HIV detection and treatment over the next 5 and 10 years. Using a computer simulation model, the team found that over the next decade, 90-90-90 would avert more than 2 million new HIV infections, more than 2.4 million deaths, and over 1.6 million orphans — saving an additional 13 million patient-years of life compared with the current pace of screening and treatment roll-out.
“We’re convinced, based on the results of our analysis, that successful implementation of the 90-90-90 targets would have a transformative impact on the AIDS epidemic worldwide,” said A. David Paltiel, professor at the Yale School of Public Health and senior author of the study.


Critics have expressed concern that the successful global implementation of 90-90-90 would require unprecedented cash infusions from donor organizations. “Our goal was to address that concern, providing donors and partner countries with pragmatic estimates of what 90-90-90 will cost and what returns they can expect on that investment,” said study co-author Linda-Gail Bekker, M.D., of the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre and University of Cape Town.
The program’s cost would be $54 billion over the next 10 years, a 42% cost increase over current scale-up activities. But taken as a whole, the study found that investment in 90-90-90 would yield a cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,260 per year of life saved, well within what is considered very cost effective for South Africa and a ratio similar to that of HIV treatment itself, the authors said.


“Yes, it would be very expensive, but it would be worth every penny,” said Rochelle P. Walensky, M.D., of the Massachusetts General Hospital’s Division of Infectious Disease and the study’s lead author.
Grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Steve and Deborah Gorlin Massachusetts General Hospital Research Scholars Award supported the study.
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lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #111 on: 24-06-2016, 08:26:08 »
bitno bitno mega bitno otkriće!  xlove5 xlove5 xlove5

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/311140.php
Quote
HIV-1 hijacks cell protein to enlarge nuclear pores
Most viruses take the opportunity to enter the nucleus when the host cell divides and the nuclear membrane or envelope - the wall that protects the nucleus and its precious cargo of DNA - breaks down. But HIV-1 does not wait for this; somehow, it manages to enter the nucleus of non-dividing cells. Exactly how it does this has been a mystery for years. What has been especially baffling is that the HIV-1 capsid - the protein shell that protects the genetic material of the virus - is some 50 percent larger than the pores in the nuclear envelope. These pores normally allow proteins and other materials in the host cell to travel to and from between the nucleus and the cell body.
The discovery that Prof. Campbell and colleagues make in their study surrounds a protein called KIF5B that normally transports various materials inside the cell away from the nucleus.
They found that HIV-1 hijacks KIF5B and induces it to tear off pieces of the nuclear envelope and transport them away from the nucleus, causing the pores to become big enough to allow HIV-1 to pass through. The pieces that are torn off are proteins called Nup358.
In cells that have no KIF5B or Nup358, the authors note that HIV-1 entry is much reduced, and the virus accumulates around the outside of the nuclear envelope.


kako je samo sladak. ove crvene tačkice, to je HIV-1. sad da civilizacija nađe način za efikasno sprečavanje ulaska u citoplazmu i da pevamo.


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Mica Milovanovic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #112 on: 24-06-2016, 08:42:16 »
Ako ti kažeš  xrofl
Mica

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #113 on: 24-06-2016, 08:48:15 »
ma samo se ti smej :lol:
kako su ljudi napisali rad, ej, to je art u pisanju radova, ma u udžbenike da uđe.
a eksperiment postavljen savršeno.
ma in love sam, rad izašao pre tri dana, evo: http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005700
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #114 on: 24-06-2016, 08:52:50 »
HIV je na kolenima! No, naravno, u razvijenijim zemljama se sa HIVom i sada živi prilično normalno, hvala Alahu i nauci, no ova vest je dobra posebno za nerazvijene zemlje gde je to i dalje grdna pošast.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #115 on: 24-06-2016, 09:21:16 »
ma naravno :)

al this is sooo science_fiction_like in a good way :lol:
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lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #116 on: 20-07-2016, 10:21:54 »
već smo pričali o prednostima (po nas) ako se krene sa antiretroviralnom terapijom (ART) čim saznamo da smo hiv+ (WHO čvrsto stoji na tom stanovištu od 2015. godine), a evo završena i prva ozbiljna petogodišnja studija (objavljena u New England Journal of Medicine) koja je pokazala da je i mogućnost prenosa virusa na partnera statistički značajno smanjena (93%) kod onih koji sa ART-om krenu ranije.
nadajmo se da će ovaj nalaz pomoći da se rana terapija uvede u državama gde se još uvek čeka da CD4+ limfociti padnu ispod 350-400 ćelija/mm3 da bi se krenulo s tretmanom.

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1600693
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #117 on: 20-07-2016, 10:26:57 »
Da, ali s obzirom da je ovde posle odlaska Globalnog Fonda stav ministarstva zdravlja da se oko HIVa više ne treba nešto mnogo cimati, mislim da se u Srbijici ovo neće tako skoro instalirati.  :(

zakk

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #118 on: 20-07-2016, 11:22:32 »
Čitao sam nešto da se pate ljudi već oko redovnih analiza :-/
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #119 on: 20-07-2016, 11:31:23 »
Pa, actually, pošto sam radio sa udruženjima osoba koje žive sa HIV-om, generalni problem je trenutno taj (a mislim da sam to već pominjao ovde na forumu) da država obezbeđuje terapiju koja se uklapa sa rezultatima pregleda i to fercera, ali za same preglede ne obezbeđuju sve potrebne reagense pa onda postaje upitno koliko je terapija koju dobijaš zbilja ugođena sa tvojim trenutnim stanjem...

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #120 on: 20-07-2016, 19:13:36 »
terapija nije ugođena kako god okreneš jer se radi na osnovu preporuka iz 2002. godine. em to, em nema reagenasa za najobičniji qPCR, a nema ih prvenstveno jer i te narudžbe podležu hororu javnih nabavki u srbiji.

u svakom slučaju, preporuke iz 2002. su uglavnom bazirane na znanju da HIV ulazi samo u CD4+ limfocite (THE boss imunskog sistema), al danas znamo i da ladno uđe u obe vrste antigen prezentujućih ćelija (ćelije koje progutaju npr. mikroba, sažvaću ga i onda njegove deliće izbace na svoju površinu u okviru nekih sopstvenih proteina i tako imunski sistem razlikuje na šta da puca a na šta ne).
znači faking HIV uđe i u makrofage i u dendritične ćelije (dokazano), a gde se još sve zavuče pa se aktivira u pogodnim okolnostima, scientifically tek naslućujemo.

da ne palamudim previše, u srbiji nema previše ljudi koji imaju HIV. da li je državi toliko skupo da ih stavi na ART čim se utvrdi da su pozitivni?
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #121 on: 20-07-2016, 19:20:03 »
Pa, u teoriji nije, ali opet, deset godina je to plaćao Globalni Fond, sad je teško napraviti tranziciju u sistem koji će da to plaća iz budžeta, plus Vučićeva ekipa je iz Ministarstva zdravlja razjurila sve koji su se bavili ovom temom i pretila da će na robiju da ih otera jer su samo krali deset godina itd. Kancelarija za HIV u Batutu je puna pristojnog sveta ali opet, nije da oni imaju moć da na ovo utiču direktno.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #122 on: 21-07-2016, 09:54:42 »
ma tu bog ne može da utiče, ako lončar ostane, bia pobedila al bar će moći i dalje da se bave nadgledanjem testova za upis u gimnaziju :lol:

šalu na stranu, morala bi to da bude jaka PR kampanja jer i ljudi koji su hiv pozitivni početak terapije povezuju sa pogoršanjem stanja (što je posledica neinformisanosti kao i ranijih preporuka).
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #123 on: 21-07-2016, 10:13:36 »
Da, mada sam Lončar tu nije imao toliko hands-on uticaja koliko Dragana Jovanović koja je imala ako se dobro sećam savetničku ulogu 2014.-2015. godine i veoma jaku želju da razbuca svu tu ekipu koja se tamo bavila HIVom, uz obrazloženje da, kako incidenca nije pala za deset godina projekata globalnog fonda to mora da je dokaz da su ljudi zaduženi za projekat u ministarstvu samo krali i nisu ništa radili. Sad, ne kažem da tu nije bilo, što bi rekao Ilić Mr Velja, kraduckanja, mada ne kažem ni da ga je bilo, ja sam zakačio samo poslednjih godinu dana cele priče i mogu da pričam šta je bilo na nivou implementatora, ne toliko na nivou ministarstva, ali fakat je da je žena pustila da HIV strategija istekne i da se posle toga nije ni malo žurilo sa kreiranjem nove tako da sada ministarstvo radi samo po inerciji a civilni sektor koji se bavi podrškom osobama koje žive sa HIVom - koji ni u najboljim danima nije baš pucao od kapaciteta, ljudskih resursa, knowhowa itd. - je odgurnut na surovu ekonomsku i političku marginu i sada ako si osoba koja živi sa HIVom imaš mnogo manje podrške nego pre par godina. Plus, naravno, zdravstveni deo problema je samo deo problema osoba koje žive sa HIVom, socijalni deo problema je actually ono što njih užasno koči i, zapravo i dovodi dao pogoršanja zdravstvenog stanja...

Da ne grešim dušu, nekoliko HIV pozitivnih osoba koje znam žive aktivno i zdravo već decenijama, ali opet, nekoliko ih je i umrlo u poslednjih par godina jer nisu baš ni imali priliku da žive aktivnije i zdravije...

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #124 on: 21-07-2016, 10:38:47 »
da, sve se slažem.

treći problem je i zaštita/prenos virusa. neverovatno je koliko neki ljudi svesno uđu u rizik, i tu se ne razlikuju previše priče iz srbije i npr. usa.
i nisam uopšte pametna šta raditi po tom pitanju. ranije sam mislila da je informacija/obaveštenost krucijalna stvar, sad mislim da ni to nije dovoljno da se odnosimo drugačije prema sopstvenom zdravlju. ok, nije da svi konzumiramo isključivo zdrave produkte al kad znaš da postoji velika verovatnoća da je neko s kim se muvaš hiv+, onda valjda nije loše razmisliti i o zaštiti. posebno ako ti je dostupna pre-exposure profilaksa u kombinaciji sa kondomima.
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #125 on: 21-07-2016, 10:45:12 »
Well, iz prakse se pokazuje da kombinovanje stalnog i ponovljenog informisanja i distribucije besplatnih kondoma (za targetirane grupe u povećanom riziku) doprinosi boljoj zaštiti, ali mislim da je uspostavljanje čvrstog linka između populacije i zdravstvenog sistema i to ne samo na nivou VCT-a (koji jeste bitan kao prvi, presudni korak) već u svim daljim potrebnim aktivnostima takođe jako važno.


Edit: Bat of kors, reiterirao bih da ovo rešava samo deo problema i da je bolja socijalna inkluzija osoba koje ili žive sa HIVom ili su u većem riziku od infekcije zapravo presudan element cele priče.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #126 on: 21-07-2016, 13:28:21 »
pre ću ja dočekati evoluciju nego bolju socijalnu inkluziju.
ajd što ljude izbacuju iz kuće kad saopšte da su hiv+, nego što se dešava da i najbolji prijatelji neće da jedu s njima da ih ne bi inficirali, na stranu što su upoznati s činjenicom da ni seksualni kontakt ne produkuje uspešnu infekciju ukoliko je load virusa premali.
nema tu rešenja do napalma pa onda sve ispočeka :lol:
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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #127 on: 21-07-2016, 13:37:08 »
Da, no, ja pričam i još šire - dakle bolja socijalna inkluzija seksualnih radnica/ radnika, LGBT osoba, intravenskih korisnika droga, Roma, koje bi imala i druge pozitivne ishode pored smanjenja HIV incidence. Ali, naravno, težak je to proces. Mislim, svuda.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #128 on: 21-07-2016, 13:39:25 »
te utopije se čak i ševek manuo, te shodno tome i ja.
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lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #129 on: 22-08-2016, 08:46:47 »
bitnost sopstvene mikroflore i jedan od lakših načina da se možda smanji predispozicija ka HIV infekciji.


Quote
How vaginal bacteria could be stoking HIV cases and blocking prevention

BY Heather Boerner

In some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, women may have an 80 percent chance of acquiring HIV in their lifetimes. New research reveals a bacterial culprit that could increase a woman’s likelihood of contracting the virus.

Jacqualine Ncube is doing everything she can to be among the 40 percent of South African women who remain HIV-negative into middle age.
At 19, she’s already participated in an HIV vaccine trial. She comes to the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre here in Cape Town every two months to be tested for HIV. She even takes a combination antiretroviral pill every night at 9 p.m. that prevents her from acquiring HIV if she’s exposed. And when it comes to sex, she insists that her boyfriend use a condom. No method is 100 percent protective, she said, so she covers all her bases.

When asked if her boyfriend ever scoffs at condoms, Ncube cracked a wry smile and shook her head emphatically.
“He’d never tell me something like that, because he knows what the answer is that he’s going to get,” she said. “I’m so rude when it comes to someone telling me what to do. I don’t want to be told what to do. I want to be my own person.”
By some estimates, about 40 percent of HIV infections are associated with biological mechanisms — mechanisms that scientists are just beginning to unravel.
She also wants, she said, “to be protected, always.”

But for a young woman to be protected always in this part of sub-Saharan Africa is a tall order. In some parts of the country, women her age have an 80 percent chance of acquiring HIV in their lifetimes. Not only are the social and economic odds against her, but a fluke of biology may be against her, too. By some estimates, about 40 percent of HIV infections are associated with biological mechanisms — mechanisms that scientists are just beginning to unravel.

Some of that unraveling is being done in real time. At the International AIDS Conference in Durban today, researchers at the Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) will unveil startling new evidence of a bacterial culprit that could be responsible for as many as two out of every five new cases of HIV among women. They’ll also reveal how another bacteria blocks the effectiveness of those pills Ncube takes.

At the heart of these discoveries is an area of research that was once considered a biological dead zone: the vaginal microbiome. Scientists have known since the 19th century that the vagina is colonized by bacteria. But it wasn’t until the 1990s that researchers began to discover the lush diversity of life there — and how that diversity may contribute to women’s risk for HIV. It’s no coincidence, it turns out, that women who live in areas with high rates of HIV also have disproportionately high rates of a microbiome imbalance called bacterial vaginosis (BV). The inflammation caused by BV, and the specific bacteria that make up that imbalance, can increase women’s susceptibility to the virus. With the research presented today, the field — and women’s chances of staying HIV-negative — could take another leap forward.

A Natural, Robust Defense

When Dr. Richard Cone, professor of biophysics at Johns Hopkins University, working on his PhD in the 1950s and 60s, the general attitude toward the vagina was, well, disinterested. In 1882, Albert Döderlein had identified Lactobacillus in the vagina, a friendly microbe that is also present in things like yogurt. And that, Cone said, was that.

“All the work we’ve done in the last 20 years could have been done 100 years ago,” Cone said. “But there was just no interest.”

By the late 1980s and early 1990s, Cone was interested, though. And so were microbiologists like Sharon Hillier, who began her career working in reproductive health, as well as other microbiologists around the world who began to see this as a fertile field of study. Cone, Hillier, and others began submitting grant applications to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Then, in the 1990s, a leadership change at the agency expanded funding.

Quickly, it became clear that there’s more to the vaginal microbiome than Lactobacillus. Indeed, there’s a world in there. A 2005 study in the New England Journal of Medicine identified more than 100 different types of bacteria in the vagina.

What researchers began to realize was that several strains of Lactobacillus had the power to protect women from sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV — and that others left women even more exposed.

First, the good news. The microbiome has a secret weapon against HIV: lactic acid. But the conditions have to be just right.
Here’s how it works. First, Lactobacillus has to dominate the vaginal microbiome. Second, the pH in the vagina has to drop below 4 — a low pH that conforms, perhaps not coincidentally, with a healthy pH in the gut (stomach pH tends to hover around 3.5). That’s the pH of a dill pickle.

If you have a Lactobacilli-dominated microbiome, you’ve already created a hostile environment for invading bacteria, viruses and even sperm, all of which thrive at a higher pH. But when you combine Lactobacilli-produced lactic acid with a very low pH, the environment isn’t just hostile. The lactic acid becomes deadly to invading bugs, Cone said.

At a very low pH, lactic acid turns into, in Cone’s words, “a small oily molecule” capable of slipping through the membranes of invading cells and releasing acid directly into the bug.
“The point at which Lacobacillus begins to secrete enough lactic acid to load up the mucosa with protons is at about 3.8,” said Cone. “It gets charged and forms a layer that is truly protective.”
And though the protective effect is modest, it still adds a layer between women and bugs.

“I like to say,” Cone said with a laugh, “that women need protection from sperm and germs.”

Living in Ncube’s World


The problem is that Lactobacillus doesn’t dominate the microbiomes of many of the world’s women — especially women most at risk for HIV. A 2010 study of American women in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that Lactobacillus dominated the microbiomes of Asian and white women, but accounted for only 59.6 and 61.9 percent of the microbiomes of Latina and Black women, respectively. The same has been found in sub-Saharan Africa.

That diversity in the microbiome, and the associated higher pH and increased inflammation is part of what we call BV.
Saying someone has BV is as specific as saying that someone has a cold. Yes, BV is associated with specific symptoms, such as watery discharge and malodor. But only specific combinations of bacteria are associated with those symptoms. So it’s possible to have asymptomatic BV — that is, diversity in the microbiome that increases pH but doesn’t cause discharge or odor. And it’s possible to have those symptoms and be so used to them that they don’t strike you as abnormal, or cause you to visit a doctor for treatment.

“Women don’t come in,” said David Fredricks, member of the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and author of that 2005 NEJM article, “and say, ‘My pH is off.’ They say, ‘I have malodor’ or ‘I have discharge.’”
But that’s exactly what’s happening, especially in women at high risk for HIV. In the U.S., the overall BV rate hovers around 29 percent. But for African American women, whose rates of HIV are 20 times higher than their white counterparts, BV rates can be as high as 51 percent. In Ncube’s Cape Town, where four in 10 new HIV infections occur among women 15 to 24, rates of BV reach 47 percent. And more than two-thirds of those women report no symptoms, said Shaun Barnabas, a PhD candidate studying the vaginal microbiome in Cape Town.

Finding the Smoking Gun

And it turns out that none of the bacteria associated with the symptoms of BV are the ones associated with HIV risk. For that, you have to turn to one strain: Prevotella bivia.
At least that’s the finding of a study released today at the International AIDS Conference. The study, based on the sequencing and analysis of the microbiomes of 120 South African women, found that it was only women with P. bivia in their microbiome who also were statistically more likely to have HIV, too—by a lot.

“What we found,” said CAPRISA’s Karim, “was that if a woman had ever had Prevotella, she had an almost 20-fold higher risk for inflammation and HIV acquisition than other women.”
Of the 120 women studied, 10 percent had ever had Prevotella. But that 10 percent accounted for 41 percent of all infections. That means that two out of five women in the study had acquired HIV because P. bivia set the stage.

It does that, Karim said, by producing proteins known to marshal a strong immune response. That signal causes immune cells called CD4 T cells to flood to the vaginal surface. Unfortunately, those cells are exactly the ones HIV targets to infiltrate and co-opt. Unrecognized by the rest of the immune system, those infected cells are transported to the lymph nodes. And voila — swift, efficient HIV infection.
That means that two out of five women in the study had acquired HIV because P. bivia set the stage.

And while the results are based on a small sample of patients and need to be replicated in other parts of the continent and world, the findings are already drawing praise from high places. Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease at the NIH, called it “quite an important observation.”
Being able to identify a specific villain is good,” (:lol:) he said. “Will manipulating the microbiome be the major thing that ends AIDS? No. But is it one of many, many things that need to be pursued, to help us possibly understand the novel ways we can prevent HIV in women? Absolutely.”

HIV Prevention At Stake


But that’s not all Karim’s team discovered. They also unveiled data today that linked another bacterial strain — Gardnerella vaginalis — to lower effectiveness of the HIV prevention pill Truvada in women.
Karim’s team started the study because they had noticed, in HIV prevention trials, that the efficacy rates were all over the place in women. A recent study out of University of North Carolina that predicted that, for women to receive full protection from the HIV prevention pill Truvada, they couldn’t miss even one dose. Gay men, meanwhile, had been shown in other studies to benefit from the full power of Truvada with just four doses a week.

“We need to figure this out,” Karim said he thought.

So they pulled the frozen microbiome samples from women who’d participated in CAPRISA’s study of an HIV prevention gel made from one of Truvada’s components, tenofovir, and started sequencing the microbiome. Pretty soon, a clear picture emerged. Women with Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes showed “quite a reasonable effectiveness from tenofovir,” he said. “But in women without Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes, tenofovir had almost no benefit.”
Gardnerella was just gobbling up the tenofovir. It was taking it inside the cell, so it wasn’t available to protect against HIV.”

So what gives? To find out, they took cultures of Lactobacillus and the other bacterial strains prevalent in the women’s microbiomes and they exposed them to tenofovir. With Lactobacillus? There was almost no effect. The Lactobacillus just sat there, and so did the tenofovir. They coexisted happily. With Gardnerella? Within four hours, half of the tenofovir disappeared. Within 24 hours, almost all of it was gone.

“I was just floored,” said Karim. “Gardnerella was just gobbling up the tenofovir. It was taking it inside the cell, so it wasn’t available to protect against HIV.”


Whether this finding genuinely answers the question of why women have to be so perfectly adherent to Truvada to achieve the same protection as gay men will require further study. CAPRISA’s results were based on tests done in a lab—the real proof will come when researchers treat for Gardnerella and watch how that changes the effectiveness of Truvada in women. Just such a study, on periodic treatment of BV and its affect on other STIs, is underway in Kenya.

Jared Baeten, vice chair of global health at the University of Washington and one of the investigators of the PARTNERS PrEP prevention trial and demonstration project, said that their studies have shown that Truvada has virtually eliminated HIV acquisition in women in their studies. So Gardnerella may not impact the protection women get from oral PrEP.

“I think the results will probably be most relevant to local application of tenofovir in gel form,” he said. “[CAPRISA’s] results are very important for thinking about which medicines to use as microbicides”–that is, topical prevention medicines, like the tenofovir gel.

Still, the results could change how policy makers scale up HIV prevention. In the middle of explaining these results last week, Karim interrupted the conversation to take a call from Dr. Margaret Chan, director-general at the World Health Organization.

A Healthier Future


The good news is that diagnosing and treating BV is simple and inexpensive, even without diagnosing and treating specific strains. You can buy a pH testing kit at a pharmacy and, if the pH is above 4.5, Karim said, you can get a prescription for metronidazole (Flagyl) and treat it yourself. Getting Lactobacillus into one’s microbiome is a little trickier, though researchers are trying to devise a variety of solutions to that problem now.

All this may mean, for Ncube and other women like her, that there’s another tool they can use to keep themselves safe, forever, from HIV. When she spoke to PBS NewsHour, Ncube didn’t know about Karim’s results, and it was unclear if she’d ever been tested or treated for BV. For now, Ncube will keep doing what she can do to protect herself. And when she looks ahead, she said cheerfully, she will keep going, keep protecting herself. She’s willing, for instance, to keep taking the pills as long as it takes for the epidemic to change.

“Forever,” she said, “Yeah, I’m willing to take it as long as it [HIV] lasts.”

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/bacteria-stoking-hiv-cases-blocking-hiv-treatment/
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #130 on: 29-10-2016, 05:47:28 »
New Study Shows HIV Epidemic Started Spreading in New York in 1970 
 
Quote

A new genetic study confirms theories that the global epidemic of HIV and AIDS started in New York around 1970, and it also clears the name of a gay flight attendant long vilified as being "Patient Zero."
Researchers got hold of frozen samples of blood taken from patients years before the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS was ever recognized, and teased out genetic material from the virus from that blood.
They use it to show that HIV was circulating widely during the 1970s, and certainly before people began noticing a "gay plague" in New York in the early 1980s.
"We can date the jump into the U.S. in about 1970 and 1971," Michael Worobey, an expert on the evolution of viruses at the University of Arizona, told reporters in a telephone briefing.
"HIV had spread to a large number of people many years before AIDS was noticed."
Their findings also suggest HIV moved from New York to San Francisco in about 1976, they report in the journal Nature.
 
"New York City acts as a hub from which the virus moves to the west coast," Worobey said.
"HIV had spread to a large number of people many years before AIDS was noticed."
Their findings confirm widespread theories that HIV first leapt from apes to humans in Africa around the beginning of the 20th century and circulated in central Africa before hitting the Caribbean in the 1960s. The genetic evidence supports the theory that the virus came from the Caribbean, perhaps Haiti, to New York in 1970. From there it spread explosively before being exported to Europe, Australia and Asia.
HIV now infects more than 36 million people worldwide. About 35 million have died from AIDS, according to the United Nations AIDS agency. Two million are infected every year and more than 1 million died of it last year.
Related: New HIV Vaccine Will be Tested in South Africa
In the United States, more than 1.2 million people have HIV, and about 50,000 people are newly infected each year. More than two dozen medications now on the market can keep infected people healthy, and can prevent infection, but there is no vaccine and there is no cure.
Researchers now know a lot about HIV and how it attacks the body's immune cells, gradually destroying the immune system. It takes about 10 years or so for untreated and undiagnosed patients to realize something is badly wrong as they develop AIDS-defining illnesses such as Kaposi's sarcoma, a rare form of cancer, or pneumonia, or as they succumb to tuberculosis.
It infects men, women and children alike, is passed to newborns from infected mothers, and spreads like wildfire in infected needles shared by drug users.
But in the early 1980s in New York and San Francisco, all people knew was that something mysterious was killing gay men.
"Death and dying was such a part of our daily lives."
"In New York City, the virus encountered a population that was like dry tinder, causing the epidemic to burn hotter and faster and infecting enough people that it grabs the world's attention for the first time," Worobey said in a statement.
"Death and dying was such a part of our daily lives," said Sean Strub, a writer and activist who has been HIV positive since the 1980s.
Related: Drugs Make HIV Hard to Transmit
Once the virus was identified, researchers could start working on treatments and diagnostic tests. And specialists like Worobey could look at the genetics of the virus itself to find its origins.
But no one had samples of HIV infected blood from before the 1980s.
Worobey's team got nine samples and sequenced the RNA from eight of them. It wasn't easy to get and was damaged, so they used new techniques similar to those used to reconstruct DNA from ancient Neanderthal remains.
The different mutations in the genetic material — DNA from people, RNA from the virus — can provide a genetic clock. The more diversity, the more time a virus has been circulating and acquiring small mutations.
"That information is stamped into the RNA of the virus from 1970," Worobey said.
"Our analysis shows that the outbreaks in California that first caused people to ring the alarm bells and led to the discovery of AIDS were really just offshoots of the earlier outbreak that we see in New York City."
Related: AIDS Activists Still Fight Stigma
Other experts not involved in the research called it impressive.
"For the first time, they found and characterized samples that had a date on the tube that preceded the discovery of the disease," said Dr. Beatrice Hahn, who studies the genetics and evolution of HIV and other infectious agents at the University of Pennsylvania.
"They had tubes with 1978, 1979 written on them," she added. "That was something very powerful."
If someone directly infects someone else with a virus, usually it's easy to tell from the genetic sequence. Samples taken from each person will be very close genetically, if not identical. Because the HIV viruses taken from the different samples showed many different mutations, that shows HIV had been infecting many people for quite a time.
Related: Black Gay, Bisexual Men Have 50 Percent Risk of HIV
"This means this virus was in this country way before the disease was recognized," Hahn said.
"By the time people discovered the disease as a completely new entity that came out of the blue and killed people left and right for really unknown reasons, the disease had already been in this country for 10 years prior. That's a little sobering."
Using their genetic clock, Worobey's team showed the virus infecting men in the 1970s in San Francisco had fewer mutations. "Compared to NYC, the San Francisco epidemic in 1978 appeared to have been established more recently," they wrote.
"This suggests that the bulk of the HIV-1 infections in San Francisco in 1978 traced back to a single introduction from New York City in around 1976."
"I think in many ways this paper may be one of the last pieces, if not the last piece in the puzzle."
The Worobey team also sequenced samples of virus taken from Gaetan Dugas, a Canadian flight attendant named as "Patient Zero." Dugas died in 1984 and stunned researchers when he told them he'd had about 250 sexual partners a year between 1979 and 1981, although it later became clear that was not uncommon.
Related: Southern, Gay Men Have High HIV Rate
The sequences make it clear he was a victim of an epidemic that had already been raging, and not its originator, Worobey said.
"It's shocking how this man's name has been sullied and destroyed by this incorrect history," said Peter Staley, a former Wall Street bond trader who became an AIDS activist in New York in the 1980s.
"He was not Patient Zero and this study confirms it through genetic analysis," Staley told NBC News.
"No one should be blamed for the spread of viruses," Worobey said.
He said he hopes the techniques his team used can help explain the patterns of other epidemics, such as Ebola, SARS and Zika.
"I think in many ways this paper may be one of the last pieces, if not the last piece in the puzzle," Hahn said. "I am a believer of putting the last nail into the coffin. And I believe that is what was done here."
 

 
Donekle povezana epizoda Radiolab podkasta koja se bavi patient zero fenomenom i kači i ovo:
 
 
http://www.radiolab.org/story/169879-patient-zero/

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #131 on: 29-10-2016, 13:15:02 »
u svemu je najzanimljivije kako lako su čoveka proglasili za nultog pacijenta.
jedno slovo O koje je neko utripovano pametan proglasio za nulu (i sigurno bio ponosan na sebe  :mrgreen: ) u kombinaciji sa konzervativnim pogledom na "em gej, em highly promiskuitetna osoba" (koja je znala imena svojih seksualnih partnera) dovelo je do čoveka koji je bio kriv za sve!  :lol: :lol: :lol:

Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #132 on: 29-10-2016, 13:25:44 »
Da su samo znali da tad zabrane propagiranje homoseksualizma, kao, recimo Rusi, svega ovoga ne bi bilo!!!!!!!!!

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #133 on: 29-10-2016, 13:32:16 »
a sad kao posledicu imamo i zoofiliju i mutirane crnce!  xrofl

šalu na stranu, taj "optužujem te ne na osnovu činjenica već na osnovu onoga što moj skučeni um misli da su činjenice o tvom ponašanju" je fascinantan fenomen. ako ikako nađeš vremena da odgledaš docu o amandi knox (netflix), obrati pažnju na glavnog novinara i glavnog inspektora. majko najmilija. čak i ne ulazim u to da li je kriva ili ne. :lol:
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #134 on: 29-10-2016, 13:58:39 »
Videćemo da li to srpski Netflix ima u ponudi!!!!!!!!!

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #135 on: 05-12-2016, 09:15:08 »
englezi se izborili za prep! :)
http://www.bbc.com/news/health-38183672

čujem da će fond pokrivati troškove za truvadu u srbiji i to me jako obradovalo. mehane, znaš li nešto detaljnije o tome? anyone?
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #136 on: 05-12-2016, 09:40:30 »
Ne, prekjuče sam pričao sa bivšom koleginicom koja je još aktivna u HIV-u i situacija je za sada prilično status quo - terapije ima, testova i dalje nema koliko treba, čuvaju se ko oči u glavi itd... Truvada nisam čuo da se pominje, al to ne znači da se to ne događa...

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #137 on: 15-04-2017, 05:48:46 »
englezi se izborili za prep! :)
Ali u Kanadi:
 
 HIV Infection Reported in Patient Who Was Taking PrEP?
 
Quote

The first case of HIV contracted by a person taking the PrEP drug regimen has been reported. PrEP is designed to prevent HIV infection, but one man in Canada reportedly contracted a rare, multi-drug-resistant strain of HIV in spite of taking PrEP.
“Does this ‘failure’ change anything at all?” asks ER Physician Dr. Travis Stork. Gastroenterologist Dr. Jorge Rodriguez was at the International AIDS Conference in Boston when the news broke, and explains, “PrEP is a technique, it isn’t a pill. It stands for ‘pre-exposure prophylaxis.’ You’re taking something before you’re exposed to it. For people at high risk for HIV, if they take one pill a day they’re 97 percent less likely to catch HIV if they engage in the most unsafe sexual habit.”
Because many people are now on PrEP, the incidence of new infections and the number of people becoming HIV positive has dropped tremendously.
Watch: States with Highest STDs
“All of these studies are showing it’s 97 percent effective -- not 100 percent,” notes Dr. Rodriguez. “So this wasn’t a surprise.”
Dr. Stork observes that one of the concerns when PrEP was introduced was that patients would no longer practice safe sex. And this does seem to be happening – rates for most STDs have gone up.
Urologist Dr. Jennifer Berman is concerned about the drug-resistant HIV strain. She asks, “Did that guy trace back who he had slept with who may have carried the resistant strain?” Dr. Rodriguez says they don’t know who he contracted the virus from.
Watch: Father Injects Son with HIV!
Finally, Dr. Rodriguez cautions that HIV isn’t the only virus people need to worry about. “I’m pro-PrEP, don’t get me wrong …” “… because it’s an additional layer of protection,” finishes Dr. Stork. “For one particular virus, not for all the STDs out there.” People on PrEP still need to take precautions.
Dr. Berman wonders about monogamous couples where one partner is infected with HIV and the other isn’t. “That would be a great situation for PrEP,” agrees Dr. Rodriguez.
The final word is that PrEP is highly effective, but it’s not a magic bullet. The safest thing to do is to combine it with standard safe-sex practices – and lower your odds of contracting all STDs, including HIV.
 

zosko

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #138 on: 17-04-2017, 09:11:45 »
najbolja vakcina je pamet u glavu.
kad upoznate osobu koja patoloski namuvava seksualne partnere, sve u rizicnim skupinama, NE ulazite u odnos.
jednostavno.
moving on my own trace

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #139 on: 05-05-2017, 07:48:56 »
CRISPR Eliminates HIV in Live Animals



Quote
Due to their innate nature to hide away and remain latent for extended periods of time, HIV infections have proven notoriously difficult to eliminate. Yet now, new data released from a research team led by investigators at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University (LKSOM) and the University of Pittsburgh shows that HIV DNA can be excised from the genomes of living animals to eliminate further infection. Additionally, the researchers are the first to perform this feat in three different animal models, including a "humanized" model in which mice were transplanted with human immune cells and infected with the virus. Findings from the new study were published recently in Molecular Therapy in an article entitled “In Vivo Excision of HIV-1 Provirus by saCas9 and Multiplex Single-Guide RNAs in Animal Models.”     
 This is the first study to demonstrate that HIV-1 replication can be completely shut down and the virus eliminated from infected cells in animals with a powerful gene-editing technology known as CRISPR/Cas9. The new work builds on a previous proof-of-concept study that the team published in 2016, in which they used transgenic rat and mouse models with HIV-1 DNA incorporated into the genome of every tissue of the animals' bodies. They demonstrated that their strategy could delete the targeted fragments of HIV-1 from the genome in most tissues in the experimental animals.
 "Our new study is more comprehensive," noted co-senior study author Wenhui Hu, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor in the Center for Metabolic Disease Research and the department of pathology at LKSOM. "We confirmed the data from our previous work and improved the efficiency of our gene-editing strategy. We also show that the strategy is effective in two additional mouse models, one representing acute infection in mouse cells and the other representing chronic, or latent, infection in human cells."
 In this new study, the LKSOM team genetically inactivated HIV-1 in transgenic mice, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60% to 95%—confirming their earlier findings. They then tested their system in mice acutely infected with EcoHIV, the mouse equivalent of human HIV-1.

 "During acute infection, HIV actively replicates," explained co-senior study investigator Kamel Khalili, Ph.D., professor and chair of the department of neuroscience at LKSOM. "With EcoHIV mice, we were able to investigate the ability of the CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to block viral replication and potentially prevent systemic infection." The excision efficiency of their strategy reached 96% in EcoHIV mice, providing the first evidence for HIV-1 eradication by prophylactic treatment with a CRISPR/Cas9 system.
 In the third animal model, a latent HIV-1 infection was recapitulated in humanized mice engrafted with human immune cells, including T cells, followed by HIV-1 infection. "These animals carry latent HIV in the genomes of human T cells, where the virus can escape detection, Dr. Hu explained. Amazingly, after a single treatment with CRISPR/Cas9, viral fragments were successfully excised from latently infected human cells embedded in mouse tissues and organs.
 In all three animal models, the researchers employed a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector delivery system based on a subtype known as AAV-DJ/8. "The AAV-DJ/8 subtype combines multiple serotypes, giving us a broader range of cell targets for the delivery of our CRISPR/Cas9 system," remarked Dr. Hu. Additionally, the researchers re-engineered their previous gene-editing apparatus to now carry a set of four guide RNAs, all designed to efficiently excise integrated HIV-1 DNA from the host cell genome and avoid potential HIV-1 mutational escape.
 To determine the success of the strategy, the team measured levels of HIV-1 RNA and used a novel and cleverly designed live bioluminescence imaging system. "The imaging system, developed by Dr. Won-Bin Young while at the University of Pittsburgh, pinpoints the spatial and temporal location of HIV-1-infected cells in the body, allowing us to observe HIV-1 replication in real time and to essentially see HIV-1 reservoirs in latently infected cells and tissues," stated Dr. Khalili.
 The researchers were excited by their findings and are optimistic about their next steps. “The next stage would be to repeat the study in primates, a more suitable animal model where HIV infection induces disease, in order to further demonstrate the elimination of HIV-1 DNA in latently infected T cells and other sanctuary sites for HIV-1, including brain cells," Dr. Khalili concluded. "Our eventual goal is a clinical trial in human patients."

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #140 on: 25-09-2017, 07:56:07 »

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #141 on: 26-09-2017, 07:19:35 »
lepo.
problem je samo u tome da je hiv virus i da neutrališuća antitela nisu dovoljna za odbranu.
imunski sistem se deli (najjednostavnije) na humoralni (antitela) i celularni (razne ćelije, pa i limfociti).
za toksine i ekstracelularne bakterije, humoralni je obično dovoljan. za viruse i intracelularne bakterije nam je potreban i humoralni al najviše celularni.
plus, hiv konstantno mutira.
u najboljem slučaju, doći ćemo do smanjenja verovatnoće da ćemo se inficirati ako imamo ta antitela. do eradikacije virusa je put dugačak, al zanimljiv! :)
Some things you have to do yourself.