Author Topic: AIDS vakcina  (Read 29129 times)

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Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #50 on: 09-11-2012, 10:57:26 »
Pošto stiže vreme da krenemo sa prepucavanjem oko toga koliko žive stavljaju u vakcine kojima će da kontrolišu naše misli, evo šta kaže Amerikanac u vezi najčešćih mitova vezanih za vakcinu protiv gripa:
 
 Flu Shot Myths, Busted 
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We're in the thick of cold and flu season, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal flu shots prevented 5 million cases of influenza last year and helped keep 40,000 people out of the hospital in 2011. Still, more than half of the population of the United States avoids getting an influenza vaccine each year, usually because they're afraid that the flu shot itself will give them the flu.

Related: 7 Foods the Fight Cold and Flu

It's one of the biggest myths about the flu shot out there. "It's impossible to get the flu, and it's impossible to spread the flu" from the injection, Dr. Dennis Cunningham, an infectious disease specialist at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Ohio, told LiveScience.com

The confusion may come from the fact that some of the vaccine's side effects—low-grade fever, body aches, and soreness at the injection site—feel like flu-like symptoms. But, "the soreness is often caused by a person's immune system making protective antibodies to the killed viruses in the vaccine," the CDC says on its website. "You cannot get the flu from a flu shot."

Related: Do You Have a Cold, or the Flu?

Here are a few other flu-shot related myths:

Myth: Seasonal flu is annoying but harmless—it feels like a bad cold, that's all.

Truth: While both are respiratory illnesses, there are several key differences between the flu and a bad cold. If you have a sore throat and a runny or stuffy nose, it's likely that you have a common cold, not the flu. According to the CDC, Fever, headaches, body aches, extreme fatigue, severe congestion, and a dry cough are signs of influenza; the flu can also lead to pneumonia and bacterial infections. Also, while a cold may last a few days, the flu can leave you feeling miserable for weeks. "When you get the flu, you know it," Dr. Christine Hay, assistant professor at the University of Rochester Medical Center, told Web MD. "You feel like you've been hit by a Mack truck."

Related: Protecting your home from the flu

Myth: The flu shot gives you complete protection right away.

Truth: There are three different types of influenza—types A, B, and C—which are divided into several subtypes and strains (How many? The CDC will only say "many" and that "new strains of influenza viruses appear and replace older strains"). The seasonal flu shot protects against the three strains that researchers think will be dominant that year. It takes up to two weeks for your body to gain protection after being vaccinated so, if you're exposed to the virus shortly before getting vaccinated or while you're waiting for your immune system to ramp up, or if you encounter another strain of the virus after you've had your shot, you can still end up with the flu. "The vaccine isn't 100 percent effective, it's only about 50 to 70 percent effective," Philip Tierno, director of clinical microbiology and immunology at New York University Langone Medical Center, told ABC News. "But it will mollify the virus, and hopefully the person won't have a severe reaction."

Myth: You don't need the flu shot every year.

Truth: Dominant flu strains change, so researchers must reformulate the seasonal flu shot every year—which means that last year's shot may not protect you from this year's most-prevalent virus. "It's confusing, since the flu vaccine is different from most vaccines, which offer longer-lasting protection," Dr. William Schaffner, chairman of the department of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University's School of Medicine in Nashville, Tennessee, tells WebMD.com.

Myth: Only elderly people need the flu shot.

Truth: People who are 65 or older, pregnant, or have certain medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and chronic lung disease are at high risk for catching the flu. But healthy people who are at low risk still spend time around family members who are much more susceptible to the virus. If you have young children at home, or if you're a caregiver for anyone in a high-risk group, your getting the flu shot helps protect them as well.

Myth: The flu shot is safe for everyone.

Truth: Babies younger than 6 months old and people who have had Guillain-Barre Syndrome should not receive the seasonal flu shot. Neither should anyone who has ever had a severe allergic reaction to eggs (the virus for the vaccine is grown in chicken eggs) or who has had a severe reaction to a previous flu shot. Otherwise, the flu vaccine is safe for people age 6 months and older.

Myth: You can get the flu from a flu shot.

Truth: The flu shot is an inactivated vaccine, which means that the virus on it has been killed. It's enough to trigger your immune system to start making antibodies, but you can't get an actual infection. (The nasal spray version of the shot, contains a weakened form of the active virus, and while you can end up with some flu-like symptoms from it, it still won't give you the flu.)

Myth: If you've already had the flu, you don't need a flu shot.

Truth: "In any flu season, there's usually both Type A and Type B influenza in circulation," Dr. Trish M. Perl, assistant professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore, tells WebMD. Just because you've caught one type of the virus doesn't mean you're immune from the other. Getting the flu shot could stop you from suffering through a second round.

Myth: Flu shots protect against the stomach flu.

Truth: Those stomach bugs may feel flu-like, but gastroenteritis isn't related to the influenza virus. While seasonal flu can sometimes cause vomiting and diarrhea in children, it's very rare for adults, so the flu shot does not stop you from ending up with a "24-hour flu" or a "tummy bug."

Myth: Only doctors can administer flu shots.

Truth: You can safely get the flu vaccine in many drugstores (including Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart) and health clinics around the country, even without an appointment.

Myth: You shouldn't get the flu shot if you're already sick.

Truth: Check with your doctor first, but most experts agree that as long as you don't have a fever of more than 101 degrees, it's safe for you to get a flu shot even if you're sick.

Myth: If you make it to November without catching the flu, then you don't need the vaccine.

Truth: Flu season usually peaks in February, and flu vaccines are often still available in December and January. There's still time to minimize your chances of getting the flu this season. The CDC website, however, recommends that you get the seasonal shot as soon as it becomes available in your community, even as early as August.

 

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #51 on: 09-11-2012, 11:52:19 »
Međutim, ima novosti i o HIV/ AIDS vakcinisanju:
 
 Human trials for HIV/AIDS vaccine making steady progress 
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The first and only preventative HIV vaccine based on a genetically modified killed whole-virushas been making steady progress in Phase I Clinical Trials in the United States and the interim results are being analyzed in preparation for the next steps. Developed by Dr. Chil-Yong Kang and his team at Western’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, with the support of Sumagen Canada, the vaccine (SAV001-H) holds tremendous promise for success in the final phases of clinical testing now that the first hurdle has been accomplished. It is the only HIV vaccine currently under development in Canada, and one of only a few in the world.
The first human applied clinical study (SAV CT 01) using a genetically modified killed whole-virusvaccine(SAV001-H) to evaluate its safety and tolerability was initiated in March 2012. This study is a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled study of killed whole HIV-1 vaccine (SAV001-H) following intramuscular (IM) administration. Infected men and women, 18-50 years of age, have been enrolled in this study and randomized into two treatment groups to administer killed whole HIV-1 vaccine (SAV001-H) or placebo.
Sumagen announced today the patient enrollment has progressed smoothly and there have been no adverse effects observed including local reactions, signs/symptoms and laboratory toxicities after SAV001-H injection in all enrolled patients to date. With these interim results, the SAV001-H has proven safety and tolerability in humans and given Sumagen confidence for the next clinical trials to prove its immunogenicity and efficacy evaluation.
In addition, the humoral immune responses, such as HIV-1 antibody formation against SAV001-H, are currently being analyzed. The interim data showed significant increase in the HIV-1 antibody formations after SAV001-H administration compared to the base line in some patients. Even though this study is a blinded study until completion, these results are encouraging for the possibility of the prophylactic potency of SAV001-H.
With these interim results, Sumagen is confident of the safety of SAV001-H and the potency of inducing immune responses in human trials.
“We have proven that there is no safety concern of SAV001-H in human administration and we are now prepared to take the next steps towards Phase II and Phase III clinical trials,” said Dr. Dong Joon Kim, a spokesperson for Sumagen Co. Ltd. “We are delighted to be one step closer to the first commercialized HIV vaccine.”
In future, the company will be looking for collaboration with multi-national biopharmaceutical companies for globalizing clinical trials and commercialization.
This Phase I clinical trial (SAV CT 01) was partially funded by Industrial Research Assistant Program of National Research Council Canada since January 2012.
HIV/AIDS has killed more than 28 million people worldwide, and more than 34 million people currently live with the virus infection. Since the virus was characterized in 1983, there have been numerous trials through pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions around the world to develop vaccines; however, no vaccine has been commercialized to date.
Other HIV vaccines evaluated through human clinical trials have focused on either one specific component of HIV as an antigen, genetic vaccine using recombinant DNA, or recombinant viruses carrying the HIV genes.
Kang’s vaccine is unique in that it uses a killed whole HIV-1, much like the killed whole virus vaccines for polio, influenza, rabies and hepatitis A. The HIV-1 is genetically engineered so it is non-pathogenic and can be produced in large quantities.
Through WORLDiscoveries, Western’s technology transfer office, Sumagen Canada has secured patents for the SAV001 vaccine in more than 70 countries, including the U.S., the European Union, China, India and South Korea. The vaccine has been manufactured at a bio-safety level 3 (BSL3) good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility in the United States.
Located in The Stiller Centre for Technology Commercialization in Western’s Research Park in London, Ontario, Sumagen Canada was established in 2008 specifically to manage and support clinical development of Kang’s vaccine. Sumagen Canada is a subsidiary of Sumagen Co. Ltd., a Korean-based pharmaceutical venture company.

 

scallop

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Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #53 on: 10-12-2012, 20:56:57 »
I za Mehana i za Scallopa: dream on.

1. To sto su dobili antitela ne znaci nista. Cak i da su protektivna, ne mogu da se bore protiv Hiv-a, tu nam treba celularni imunski odgovor, humoralni (antitela) radi kod npr. toksina, al ne znaci mnogo kad se boris protiv virusa ili intracelularnih bakterija.

2. Cak i da prevazidjemo citokinsku oluju i sve ostale tehnoloske zavrzlame, ostaje da je ovaj
vid terapije (individualizovana do perfekcije) em na ivici smrti invazivan (ok, ionako ce da umru), em nepriustiv sirokim narodnim masama.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #54 on: 22-01-2013, 20:57:38 »
Ponovo o gripu: naime, vakcine, reportedly izazivaju - narkolepsiju! Nisu dakle bez vraga bili oni koji su se bunili protiv vakcinacije.
 
Insight: Evidence grows for narcolepsy link to GSK swine flu shot
 
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STOCKHOLM (Reuters) - Emelie is plagued by hallucinations and nightmares. When she wakes up, she's often paralyzed, unable to breathe properly or call for help. During the day she can barely stay awake, and often misses school or having fun with friends. She is only 14, but at times she has wondered if her life is worth living.
Emelie is one of around 800 children in Sweden and elsewhere in Europe who developed narcolepsy, an incurable sleep disorder, after being immunized with the Pandemrix H1N1 swine flu vaccine made by British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline in 2009.
Finland, Norway, Ireland and France have seen spikes in narcolepsy cases, too, and people familiar with the results of a soon-to-be-published study in Britain have told Reuters it will show a similar pattern in children there.
Their fate, coping with an illness that all but destroys normal life, is developing into what the health official who coordinated Sweden's vaccination campaign calls a "medical tragedy" that will demand rising scientific and medical attention.
Europe's drugs regulator has ruled Pandemrix should no longer be used in people aged under 20. The chief medical officer at GSK's vaccines division, Norman Begg, says his firm views the issue extremely seriously and is "absolutely committed to getting to the bottom of this", but adds there is not yet enough data or evidence to suggest a causal link.
Others - including Emmanuel Mignot, one of the world's leading experts on narcolepsy, who is being funded by GSK to investigate further - agree more research is needed but say the evidence is already clearly pointing in one direction.
"There's no doubt in my mind whatsoever that Pandemrix increased the occurrence of narcolepsy onset in children in some countries - and probably in most countries," says Mignot, a specialist in the sleep disorder at Stanford University in the United States.
30 MILLION RECEIVED PANDEMRIX
In total, the GSK shot was given to more than 30 million people in 47 countries during the 2009-2010 H1N1 swine flu pandemic. Because it contains an adjuvant, or booster, it was not used in the United States because drug regulators there are wary of adjuvanted vaccines.
GSK says 795 people across Europe have reported developing narcolepsy since the vaccine's use began in 2009.
Questions about how the narcolepsy cases are linked to Pandemrix, what the triggers and biological mechanisms might have been, and whether there might be a genetic susceptibility are currently the subject of deep scientific investigation.
But experts on all sides are wary. Rare adverse reactions can swiftly develop into "vaccine scares" that spiral out of proportion and cast what one of Europe's top flu experts calls a "long shadow" over public confidence in vaccines that control potential killers like measles and polio.
"No-one wants to be the next Wakefield," said Mignot, referring to the now discredited British doctor Andrew Wakefield who sparked a decades-long backlash against the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) shot with false claims of links to autism.
With the narcolepsy studies, there is no suggestion that the findings are the work of one rogue doctor.
Independent teams of scientists have published peer-reviewed studies from Sweden, Finland and Ireland showing the risk of developing narcolepsy after the 2009-2010 immunization campaign was between seven and 13 times higher for children who had Pandemrix than for their unvaccinated peers.
"We really do want to get to the bottom of this. It's not in anyone's interests if there is a safety issue that needs to be addressed," said GSK's Begg.
LIFE CHANGED
Emelie's parents, Charles and Marie Olsson, say she was a top student who loved playing the piano, taking tennis lessons, creating art and having fun with friends. But her life started to change in early 2010, a few months after she had Pandemrix. In the spring of 2010, they noticed she was often tired, needing to sleep when she came home from school.
But it wasn't until May, when she began collapsing at school, that it became clear something serious was happening.
As well as the life-limiting bouts of daytime sleepiness, narcolepsy brings nightmares, hallucinations, sleep paralysis and episodes of cataplexy - when strong emotions trigger a sudden and dramatic loss of muscle strength.
In Emelie's case, having fun is the emotional trigger. "I can't laugh or joke about with my friends anymore, because when I do I get cataplexies and collapse," she said in an interview at her home in the Swedish capital.
Narcolepsy is estimated to affect between 200 and 500 people per million and is a lifelong condition. It has no known cure and scientists don't really know what causes it. But they do know patients have a deficit of a brain neurotransmitter called orexin, also known as hypocretin, which regulates wakefulness.
Research has found that some people are born with a variant in a gene known as HLA that means they have low hypocretin, making them more susceptible to narcolepsy. Around 25 percent of Europeans are thought to have this genetic vulnerability.
When results of Emelie's hypocretin test came back in November last year, it showed she had 15 percent of the normal amount, typical of heavy narcolepsy with cataplexy.
The seriousness of her strange new illness has forced her to contemplate life far more than many other young teens: "In the beginning I didn't really want to live any more, but now I have learned to handle things better," she said.
TRIGGERS?
Scientists investigating these cases are looking in detail at Pandemrix's adjuvant, called AS03, for clues.
Some suggest AS03, or maybe its boosting effect, or even the H1N1 flu itself, may have triggered the onset of narcolepsy in those who have the susceptible HLA gene variant.
Angus Nicoll, a flu expert at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), says genes may well play a part, but don't tell the whole story.
"Yes, there's a genetic predisposition to this condition, but that alone cannot explain these cases," he said. "There was also something to do with receiving this specific vaccination. Whether it was the vaccine plus the genetic disposition alone or a third factor as well - like another infection - we simply do not know yet."
GSK is funding a study in Canada, where its adjuvanted vaccine Arepanrix, similar to Pandemrix, was used during the 2009-2010 pandemic. The study won't be completed until 2014, and some experts fear it may not shed much light since the vaccines were similar but not precisely the same.
It all leaves this investigation with far more questions than answers, and a lot more research ahead.
WAS IT WORTH IT?
In his glass-topped office building overlooking the Maria Magdalena church in Stockholm, Goran Stiernstedt, a doctor turned public health official, has spent many difficult hours going over what happened in his country during the swine flu pandemic, wondering if things should have been different.
"The big question is was it worth it? And retrospectively I have to say it was not," he told Reuters in an interview.
Being a wealthy country, Sweden was at the front of the queue for pandemic vaccines. It got Pandemrix from GSK almost as soon as it was available, and a nationwide campaign got uptake of the vaccine to 59 percent, meaning around 5 million people got the shot.
Stiernstedt, director for health and social care at the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, helped coordinate the vaccination campaign across Sweden's 21 regions.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says the 2009-2010 pandemic killed 18,500 people, although a study last year said that total might be up to 15 times higher.
While estimates vary, Stiernstedt says Sweden's mass vaccination saved between 30 and 60 people from swine flu death. Yet since the pandemic ended, more than 200 cases of narcolepsy have been reported in Sweden.
With hindsight, this risk-benefit balance is unacceptable. "This is a medical tragedy," he said. "Hundreds of young people have had their lives almost destroyed."
PANDEMICS ARE EMERGENCIES
Yet the problem with risk-benefit analyses is that they often look radically different when the world is facing a pandemic with the potential to wipe out millions than they do when it has emerged relatively unscathed from one, like H1N1, which turned out to be much milder than first feared.
David Salisbury, the British government's director of immunization, says "therein lies the risk, and the difficulty, of working in public health" when a viral emergency hits.
"In the event of a severe pandemic, the risk of death is far higher than the risk of narcolepsy," he told Reuters. "If we spent longer developing and testing the vaccine on very large numbers of people and waited to see whether any of them developed narcolepsy, much of the population might be dead."
Pandemrix was authorized by European drug regulators using a so-called "mock-up procedure" that allows a vaccine to be authorized ahead of a possible pandemic using another flu strain. In Pandemrix's case, the substitute was H5N1 bird flu.
When the WHO declared a pandemic, GSK replaced the mock-up's strain with the pandemic-causing H1N1 strain to form Pandemrix.
GSK says the final H1N1 version was tested in trials involving around 3,600 patients, including children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, before it was rolled out.
The ECDC's Nicoll says early warning systems that give a more accurate analysis of a flu strain's threat are the best way to minimize risks of this kind of tragedy happening in future.
Salisbury agrees, and says progress towards a universal flu vaccine - one that wouldn't need last-minute changes made when a new strain emerged - would cuts risks further.
"Ideally, we would have a better vaccine that would work against all strains of influenza and we wouldn't need to worry about this ever again," he said. "But that's a long way off."
With scientists facing years of investigation and research, Emelie just wants to make the best of her life.
She reluctantly accepts that to do so, she needs a cocktail of drugs to try to control the narcolepsy symptoms. The stimulant Ritalin and the sleeping pill Sobril are prescribed for Emelie's daytime sleepiness and night terrors. Then there's Prozac to try to stabilize her and limit her cataplexies.
"That's one of the things that makes me feel most uncomfortable," she explains. "Before I got this condition I didn't take any pills, and now I have to take lots - maybe for the rest of my life. It's not good to take so many medicines, especially when you know they have side effects."
(Reporting by Kate Kelland; Editing by Will Waterman)

Mme Chauchat

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #55 on: 22-01-2013, 21:14:24 »
I ti si se uželeo Lilit, priznaj, Meho!

M.M

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #56 on: 22-01-2013, 21:30:16 »
Nije jedini.
Nijedan poraz nije konačan.
http://knjigeiknjige.blogspot.com/

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #57 on: 22-01-2013, 22:11:08 »
Uželeo? Zar je nekud otišla???

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #58 on: 24-01-2013, 00:55:41 »
U Düsseldorf al malopre se vratila!!! A pati i od narkolepsije! Sutra mozda detaljnije o ovoj Mehovoj zutoj stampi!
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #59 on: 19-02-2013, 16:09:53 »
nista od vakcine protiv HIV-a, al neki bar zanimljivo skreću pažnju na problemčiće.
poster sa novog zelanda, sa kongresa "on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance" održanog prošle nedelje gde se većina učesnika napalamudi vanredno.


Some things you have to do yourself.

....

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #60 on: 19-02-2013, 16:49:02 »
kako ruzan i neukusan imperijalisticki poster.  :x

Ygg

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #61 on: 04-03-2013, 02:20:26 »
Nije o vakcini, ali jeste o HIV-u!!!
Quote
The first documented case of a child being cured of HIV was announced today at 2013 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Atlanta, GA.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130303172640.htm
"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #62 on: 04-03-2013, 13:12:49 »
"cured of hiv" je malo premakretinški naslov, za ovo što je pokazano. roknuli su bebi staroj 30 sati full terapiju koja se daje odraslima i držali je na tome 18 meseci dok majka nije odustala od tretmana (pretpostavljam da je dete imalo milion side-effects, al lekari ne govore zašto se odustalo). 5 meseci kasnije odradili su standardne testove (za koje i sami znaju koliko mogu da budu nepouzdani kad se radi o negativnom rezultatu) i pokazali da ne mogu da detektuju ni virus niti antitela. međutim, našli su virusnu DNK i RKN, al to, kao, u "jedvadetektabilnom" obliku (sa postojećom tehnologijom).

jeste da je bebeći imunski sistem široko polje za igru što se tiče tretmana jer se ~90% formira do 6. meseca života, a dok nam timus ne atrofira tamo negde oko puberteta  (timus je organ koji "uči" T-limfocte šta je sopstveno, šta nije i još štošta, fascinantno zbilja kako to radi) još imamo šanse da "naučimo" kako da se izborimo i s nekom, ne baš standardnom, infekcijom, ali mislim da s ovakvim istupanjima treba biti oprezan iz razloga što je naučna zajednica prilično u dubiozi šta i kako sa hiv-om, teško da se igde odmaklo glede vakcine, tretman je uspešan u smislu da produžava i čini život normalnim, ali suštinskog pomaka nema.
zvučaću paranoidno, al malo me plaši da ovakve bombastične studije ne dovedu do lakog testiranja svega i svačega na bebama. majmuni su zaštićeni kao beli medvedi, treba da se oteliš dok dobiješ dozvolu etičkog komiteta da eksperimentišeš na njima, a ovaj slučaj govori da je doći do eksperimenta na bebama lakše nego što sam mislila da će ikad biti. roditelji su stvarno nužno zlo na ovoj planeti. što ne znači da se i sama ne bih odlučila na ovaj shit od terapije da mi saopšte na porođaju da sam hiv pozitivna a da nisam uzimala terapiju tokom trudnoće.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Mme Chauchat

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #63 on: 04-03-2013, 14:16:37 »
"cured of hiv" je malo premakretinški naslov, za ovo što je pokazano. roknuli su bebi staroj 30 sati full terapiju koja se daje odraslima i držali je na tome 18 meseci
Šta se inače radi sa HIV pozitivnom novorođenčadi? Ozbiljno pitam jer nemam pojma, iskaz u ovom članku formulisan je otprilike kao da je ta terapija standardna procedura: "diagnosed with HIV at birth and immediately put on antiretroviral therapy", ne pominje se ni eksperimentalnost ni potreba za dobijanjem roditeljske dozvole.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #64 on: 04-03-2013, 14:56:09 »
kad je majka hiv pozitivna, detetu se 6-12 sati nakon rođenja daje niska doza leka koji se zove AZT. to je uobičajeni tretman, ali i za to ti treba pismena roditeljska dozvola.
stavljanje bebe stare 30 sati na full tretman (AIDS coctail - doza za odrasle) moralo je zahtevati specijalnu dozvolu.
sad vidim da ovo još nigde nije publikovano i da je glavni PR odrađen na kongresu koji je u toku. bilo bi zanimljivo videti sve te rezultate na jednom mestu, papir & statistika, pa tek onda izvlačiti zaključke. posebno one podatke kojima su potvrdili da je dete inficirano u startu.  :mrgreen:

čak i da prihvatimo da ovo radi kod tek novorođene dece (hiv još nije stigao da se iskaže u punom svetlu i zabode svoju zastavu), pokazano je da ne radi kod starije dece i odraslih, ali, OK da, drži virus pod kontrolom neko duže vreme. a i treba sačekati full report ovog JEDNOG slučaja.

možda zvučim ko skeptik, al ovo su opasni presedani koji će sutra ladno dovesti do "clinical trial phase 2 ili 3" tamo negde u africi, a to je ono što bi mi, jevtrice, da izbegnemo ako je ikako moguće.

Some things you have to do yourself.

scallop

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #65 on: 04-03-2013, 15:04:04 »
Tako to biva kad su majmuni pod zaštitom. :cry:
Never argue with stupid people, they will drag you down to their level and then beat you with experience. - Mark Twain.

Mme Chauchat

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #66 on: 04-03-2013, 15:39:05 »

možda zvučim ko skeptik, al ovo su opasni presedani koji će sutra ladno dovesti do "clinical trial phase 2 ili 3" tamo negde u africi, a to je ono što bi mi, jevtrice, da izbegnemo ako je ikako moguće.
:( Jasno.

Ygg

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"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

Ygg

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"I am the end of Chaos, and of Order, depending upon how you view me. I mark a division. Beyond me other rules apply."

Ghoul

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #69 on: 03-05-2013, 02:14:33 »
HIV cure expected 'within months,' Danish scientists say

By KATE STANTON, UPI.com

Published: May 1, 2013 at 10:39 PM

Could scientists be close to a cure for a disease that has killed more than 25 million people since 1981?

According to the Daily Telegraph, researchers at Denmark's Aarhus University Hospital believe they are "within months" of a breakthrough that could lead to an affordable cure for the millions of people living with the disease.

The scientists' technique involves flushing the HIV from "reservoirs" in human DNA to the surface of cells. With the help of a separate vaccine, the human body would then be able to kill the virus with its own immune system.

“I am almost certain that we will be successful in releasing the reservoirs of HIV," said Aarhus University research team member Dr Ole Søgaard, who remained optimistic but cautious about the potential results.

“The challenge will be getting the patients’ immune system to recognise the virus and destroy it. This depends on the strength and sensitivity of individual immune systems," he added.

So far, the technique has only been successful on human cells in a laboratory, but 15 patients with HIV are currently participating in trials funded by $2 million from the Danish Research Council.

The welcome news is part of a recent string of successes in HIV/AIDS research. In January, Australian scientists said they had discovered a strategy that could make the virus "self-destruct." In March, U.S. researchers at Johns Hopkins "functionally cured" a baby with HIV by pumping the infant with antivirals immediately after birth.

http://m.upi.com/story/UPI-3411367462376/

zakk

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Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #71 on: 24-10-2013, 09:26:24 »
Nije AIDS, ali je Dijabetes tip 1:

Finnish team makes diabetes vaccine breakthrough

Quote
A team working at Tampere University has discovered the virus that causes type 1 diabetes. The enterovirus penetrates the pancreas and destroys insulin-producing cells, eventually causing diabetes.
Researchers have looked at more than a hundred different strains of the virus and pinpointed five that could cause diabetes. They believe they could produce a vaccine against those strains.
”We have identified one virus type that carries the biggest risk,” said professor Heikki Hyöty. ”A vaccine could also protect against its close relatives, to give the best possible effect.”Ready to test on humansA similar enterovirus causes polio, which has been almost eradicated in many parts of the world thanks to vaccination programmes. A prototype diabetes vaccine has already been produced and tested on animals.
”We know that this vaccine is effective in mice,” noted Hyöty. ”It is important to test it in people, so that we can be sure that the vaccine prevents diabetes.”
Taking the vaccine through a clinical trial would cost some 700 million euros. Some funding is in place from the United States and from Europe, but more is required.
”Money is the biggest obstacle to testing in humans at the moment,” said Hyöty. ”The matter is of international interest, and people are interested in us. I’m optimistic that the funding will come.”
Tampere University has been co-operating with Turku and Oulu universities in the DIPP (Diabetes Prediction and Prevention) project.

zakk

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #72 on: 24-10-2013, 13:19:47 »
Čekbre otkad je dijabetes izazvan virusom? Ne znam za to...
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #73 on: 24-10-2013, 13:47:14 »
Ni ja, ali vidiš da prva rečenica kaže da je otkriveno da tip 1 izaziva virus. E, sad, Finci su ovo, pa mom zapadnocentričnom mozgu automatski ovo zvuči plauzibilnije od sličnih vesti koje povremeno vidimo iz nekakvih Kina i inih istočnih zemalja. Sigurno puka predrasuda, ali takav sam. Pratićemo šta se s ovim događa.

zakk

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #74 on: 24-10-2013, 13:58:40 »
Evo gledam talk za dijabetes t1 na mikipediji, i oni imaju samo ovo od Finaca i ne ubacuje im se još u članak.
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #75 on: 07-12-2013, 10:34:22 »
No no.
http://mobile.rawstory.com/therawstory/#!/entry/hiv-returns-to-two-men-doctors-hoped-were-cured-by,52a22e01025312186c997c99
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #76 on: 08-12-2013, 08:30:47 »
Nije AIDS, no su boginje, broj slučajeva u USA se triplirao, vele, jer zaraza stiže iz inozemstva a previše ljudi (tj. dece) nije vakcinisano. Hvala Dženi Mekarti:
 Measles Cases Triple in U.S., Vaccine Refusal Here and Elsewhere to Blame
 
Quote

Measles, one of the most communicable of all infectious diseases, is spiking in the United States, with three times as many cases as usual this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday. The spike is due to both foreign importations — infected travelers coming from places where measles is not under control — and local vulnerability: unvaccinated children and adults in the United States.
 
In a press briefing, the CDC’s director Dr. Thomas Frieden said that from January to November, there were 175 known cases of measles in the US, with 20 of those people having to be hospitalized. The agency would expect to see about 60 cases, he said. Those cases came from 52 separate travelers. Most of the time, the imported virus found only a few people to infect — but nine times, the imports caused large outbreaks, always in people who had not received the vaccine.
 
“It is not a failure of the vaccine,” Frieden said. “It’s a failure to vaccinate. Around 90 percent of the people who have had measles in this country were not vaccinated either because they refused, or were not vaccinated on time.”
 
 If 175 cases doesn’t sound like much, consider measles’ impact. It isn’t just an itchy rash; it can cause deafness and encephalitis, and miscarriage in pregnant women. Before the measles vaccine was achieved 50 years ago, the disease killed 2.6 million people around the world every year. Its cost to society is huge. A single importation of measles into Arizona in 2008, via an unvaccinated, infected Swiss tourist, caused a 14-person outbreak; compelled the Arizona Department of Health to track down and interview 8,321 people; caused seven Tucson hospitals to furlough staff members for a combined 15,120 work-hours; and forced two hospitals to spend $799,136 to contain the disease.
 
The story of that outbreak illuminates two important things about measles now. First, importations of the disease are increasing. Look at the trend line in this graphic published yesterday by CDC staff in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. That uptick on the right is entirely due to importations followed by local transmission:
 
The other important thing to consider is where the importations are coming from. We tend to think of diseases that cross our borders as something that originates in the developing world — but this time, it’s the industrialized world that is partly to blame. Dr. Samuel Katz, co-creator of the measles vaccine, spoke at the CDC’s press briefing yesterday. He said:
 
We’re not talking about measles being imported from Bangladesh and from India and from the resource-poor countries. Western Europe has had 25,000 cases of measles every year for the last three years… in great part due to vaccine hesitancy.

An editorial in JAMA Pediatrics underlined the vulnerability:
 
The greatest threat to the US vaccination program may now come from parents’ hesitancy to vaccinate their children. Although this so-called vaccine hesitancy has not become as widespread in the United States as it appears to have become in Europe, it is increasing. Many measles outbreaks can be traced to people refusing to be vaccinated … Even greater risk may come from parents who delay vaccinations rather than refusing them outright because a delayed vaccination may add more person-years of susceptibility than that due to refusing vaccination.

I wasn’t at the CDC’s briefing yesterday — I’m traveling, and listened in — but I imagine that being in the room must have been quite poignant. The measles vaccine is one of the triumphs of public health; Katz and his co-creators are believed to have saved the lives of 30 million children. Over 50 years, measles has been chased entirely out of the Western Hemisphere. Yet keeping it from becoming re-established, and eliminating it from the rest of the world, requires increasing vaccination at a time when so many are turning away. As Katz said yesterday — and perhaps it was my imagination, or a bad connection, but I thought I heard a touch of wistfulness:
 
It’s really nice to be worrying about 175 cases of measles. It’s a mark of progress. But it also shows how much further we have to go.


Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #77 on: 10-12-2013, 10:41:05 »
Interesantna priča o tome kako je leukemija izlečena "treniranjem" imunosistema pacijenta da se bori:

Killing cancer like the common cold

Quote
Nick Wilkins was diagnosed with leukemia when he was 4 years old, and when the cancer kept bouncing back, impervious to all the different treatments the doctors tried, his father sat him down for a talk. John Wilkins explained to Nick, who was by then 14, that doctors had tried chemotherapy, radiation, even a bone marrow transplant from his sister.
"I explained to him that we're running out of options," Wilkins remembers telling his son.
There was one possible treatment they could try: an experimental therapy at the University of Pennsylvania.
He asked his son if he understood what it would mean if this treatment didn't work.
"He understood he could die," Wilkins says. "He was very stoic."
A few months later, Nick traveled from his home in Virginia to Philadelphia to become a part of the experiment.
This new therapy was decidedly different from the treatments he'd received before: Instead of attacking his cancer with poisons like chemotherapy and radiation, the Philadelphia doctors taught Nick's own immune cells to become more adept at killing the cancer.
Two months later, he emerged cancer-free. It's been six months since Nick, now 15, received the personalized cell therapy, and doctors still can find no trace of leukemia in his system.
Trusting her intuition led to two cancer diagnoses
Twenty-one other young people received the same treatment at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 18 of them, like Nick, went into complete remission -- one of them has been disease-free for 20 months. The Penn doctors released their findings this weekend at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology.
"It gives us hope that this is a cure," Nick's father says. "They're really close. I think they're really onto something."
'A whole new realm of medicine '
At the conference, two other cancer centers -- Memorial Sloan-Kettering in New York and the National Cancer Institute -- will be announcing results with immunotherapies like the one Nick received. The results are promising, especially considering that the patients had no success with practically every other therapy.
"This is absolutely one of the more exciting advances I've seen in cancer therapy in the last 20 years," said Dr. David Porter, a hematologist and oncologist at Penn. "We've entered into a whole new realm of medicine."
In the therapy, doctors first remove the patient's T-cells, which play a crucial role in the immune system. They then reprogram the cells by transferring in new genes. Once infused back into the body, each modified cell multiplies to 10,000 cells. These "hunter" cells then track down and kill the cancer in a patient's body.
Essentially, researchers are trying to train Nick's body to fight off cancer in much the same way our bodies fight off the common cold.
Tumor Paint: Changing the way surgeons fight cancer
In addition to the pediatric patients, Penn scientists tried the therapy out in 37 adults with leukemia, and 12 went into complete remission. Eight more patients went into partial remission and saw some improvements in their disease.
The treatment does make patients have flulike symptoms for a short period of time -- Nick got so sick he ended up in the intensive care unit for a day -- but patients are spared some of the more severe and long-lasting side effects of extensive chemotherapy.
Penn will now work with other medical centers to test the therapy in more patients, and they plan to try the therapy out in other types of blood cancers and later in solid tumors.
A university press release says it has a licensing relationship with the pharmaceutical company Novartis and "received significant financial benefit" from the trial, and Porter and other inventors of the technology "have benefited financially and/or may benefit financially in the future."
Searching for one-in-a-million cancer cells
The big question is whether Nick's leukemia will come back.
Doctors are cautiously optimistic. The studies have only been going on since 2010, but so far relapse rates have been relatively low: of the 18 other pediatric patients who went into complete remission, only five have relapsed and of the 12 adults who went into complete remission, only one relapsed. Some of the adult patients have been cancer-free and without a relapse for more than three years and counting.
Relapses after this personalized cell therapy may be more promising than relapses after chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant, Porter explained.
First, doctors have been delighted to find the reengineered T-cells -- the ones that know how to hunt down and attack cancer -- are still alive in the patients' bodies after more than three years.
Stigma lingers for deadliest cancer
"The genetically modified T-cells have survived," Porter said. "They're still present and functional and have the ability to protect against recurrence."
Second, before declaring patients in remission, Penn doctors scoured especially hard for errant leukemia cells.
Traditionally, for the kind of leukemia Nick has, doctors can find one in 1,000 to one in 10,000 cancer cells. But Penn's technology could find one in 100,000 to one in a million cancer cells, and didn't find any in Nick or any of the patients who went into complete remission.
'It's not a fluke'
One of the best aspects of this new treatment is that it won't be terribly difficult to reproduce at other medical centers, Porter said, and one day, instead of being used only experimentally, it could be available to anyone who needed it.
"Our hope is that this can progress really quite quickly," he said. "It won't be available to everyone next year, but I don't think it would take a decade, either."
Right now patients can only get this therapy if they're in a study, but Dr. Renier Brentjens, director for cellular therapeutics at Memorial Sloan-Kettering, says he thinks it could become available to all patients in just three to five years.
"When you have three centers all with a substantial number of patients seeing the same thing -- that these cells work in this disease - you know it's not a fluke," he said.
Two days ago, Brentjens became the co-founder of Juno Therapeutics, a for-profit biotech start-up company that's working on immunotherapies.
"Fifteen years ago I was in the lab looking at these cells kill tumor cells in a petri dish and then I saw them kill tumor cells in mice, and then finally in humans," Brentjens said.
He says he'll never forget the first patient he treated, who initially had an enormous amount of cancer cells in his bone marrow. Then after the therapy, Brentjens looked under the microscope and, in awe, realized he couldn't find a single cancer cell.
"I can't describe what that's like," he said. "It's fantastic."

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #78 on: 10-12-2013, 13:09:12 »
Ovo mi je toliko zanimljivo da ću naredna tri sata (umesto da radim na godišnjem izveštaju) potrošiti da vidim kako manipulišu T limfocitima.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #79 on: 10-12-2013, 18:53:03 »
Ispravno. Ta ja godišnji izveštaj nisam još ni počeo.
 
Vidim da ljudi na slešdotu gunđaju da je ova vrsta tretmana nezgodna jer posle imunosistem više ne ume da se vrati u normalu...

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #80 on: 19-12-2013, 22:01:31 »
u nedostatku boljeg, ovo gornje mehanovo dobilo nagradu. :lol:

Science's editors have chosen cancer immunotherapy as Breakthrough of the Year for 2013, a strategy that harnesses the body's immune system to combat tumors. It's an attractive idea, and researchers have struggled for decades to make it work. Now, many oncologists say those efforts are paying off, as two different techniques show signs of helping some patients. One involves antibodies that release a brake on T cells, giving them the power to tackle tumors. Another involves genetically modifying an individual's T cells outside the body to make them better able to target cancer, and then reinfusing them so they can do just that. Experts stress that these techniques have been tested in only small trials, and they don't always work. But the results have raised hope that immunotherapy may give doctors new options for treatment in the future.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #81 on: 19-12-2013, 22:07:05 »
mnogo slatko.

Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #82 on: 03-01-2014, 09:09:10 »
Finnish HIV vaccine testing to begin
 
Quote
Finnish company FIT Biotech has developed a vaccine to be tested in a large clinical trial. Hundreds of HIV patients will participate in the comprehensive study, which is scheduled to begin next year. 
 The study will test the vaccine's efficacy at reducing the viral load of current HIV patients, in conjunction with AIDS medication.
The Tampere-based biotechnology company plans to begin testing some time after spring 2014. Previous tests have shown that the vaccine may have the ability to stop the progression of the disease, or at best to eliminate the HIV virus completely.Important collaborationThe company is working in collaboration with two leading European Universities, in addition to one or two large American pharmaceutical companies, according to  medical doctor and FIT Biotech’s CEO, Kalevi Reijonen.
“The study will last two to three years. Then, of course, applications will be made to the FDA in the USA and the EMA in Europe to authorise the marketing of the drug,” explains Reijonen. “Dealing with the regulations may take a year and a half. So we’re still looking at about five years before the drug would become available.”
Some 1,000 patients throughout France and Switzerland will take part on the trials, with the first phase involving hundreds of HIV sufferers. Participant numbers will increase as the programme progresses.Revolutionising HIV treatmentFIT plans to test the efficacy of the vaccine when used in conjunction with AIDS medication. If all goes well, the vaccine should be approved and will become available within 5 years.
Reijonen claims that the medication will revolutionise the treatment of HIV. At present, the drug related medical treatment of an HIV-patient in an industrialised country costs some 10-15,000 euros per year. With vaccination, the cost could be around a tenth of that figure.
FIT Biotech does not intend to manufacture the vaccine for sale itself, but will license production to a partner.
The company expects the vaccine to generate advance payments of tens of millions of euros and to attract royalties in the realm of hundreds of millions of euros every year.
“Our licensing negotiations will certainly be launched early next year because when these studies begin an agreement must also be negotiated. So, we are trying to move forward now on quite a tight schedule,” says Reijonen.GTU technology "gentle on the body"According to Reijonen, the GTU technology developed by FIT Biotech is also suitable for use as a preventive HIV vaccine, however, he says that such a drug is still ten years away.
The central idea behind HIV vaccine development is the use of genetic immunization. Genes are introduced into the body in order to generate a controlled immune response against HIV. Gene Transport Unit (or GTU) technology refers to FIT Biotech’s patented method by which genes can be safely introduced into the body.
“It could be described as a lorry that transports the load required for treatment or prevention into the body,” describes Reijonen.
According to him, GTU technology has a great advantage compared to earlier methods, in that the vaccine is pure DNA.
“There is not much to cause side-effects and the effect mechanism on the human body is also gentle,” Reijonen adds.
    Sources Yle 

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #83 on: 08-01-2014, 18:15:13 »
da prvo napravimo razliku izmedju profilakse i terapije?
mrzim kad svet ono sto je terapija zove vakcina! :lol:
a to sto je vakcina "pure dna" sounds ne previse promissing.
zivi bili pa videli.

btw, danas primih boostere: tetanus, difterija, pertusis, polio, M, M, R, hep A i hep B.  9 komada a ne osecam se haj. nesto tu ne valja.
Some things you have to do yourself.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #84 on: 11-07-2014, 11:35:35 »
Nije o vakcini, ali jeste o HIV-u!!!
Quote
The first documented case of a child being cured of HIV was announced today at 2013 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Atlanta, GA.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130303172640.htm


http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/11/hiv-cure-girl-still-has-virus?CMP=twt_fd

toliko o tome.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #85 on: 04-12-2014, 12:10:11 »
Lilite nema pa nema. Možda je ovo dozove.

Studija pokazuje da HIV gubi oštricu i menja se u blaže oblike (baš kao što je Norman Spinrad predvideo pre više od dve decenije):


Impact of HLA-driven HIV adaptation on virulence in populations of high HIV seroprevalence


Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #86 on: 03-01-2015, 08:56:37 »
Pošto se  i u Srbijici sve više pomalja pretnja organizovanog pokreta protiv vakcinisanja, ovaj strip  na mediumu valja imati u šteku za brzo podsećanje:
 
https://medium.com/the-nib/vaccines-work-here-are-the-facts-5de3d0f9ffd0

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #87 on: 20-02-2015, 10:17:09 »
Stopping HIV with an artificial protein


Quote
For 30 years, researchers have struggled to determine which immune responses best foil HIV, information that has guided the design of AIDS vaccines and other prevention approaches. Now, a research team has shown that a lab-made molecule that mimics an antibody from our immune system may have more protective power than anything the body produces, keeping four monkeys free of HIV infection despite injection of large doses of the virus.
Intensive hunts are under way for natural HIV antibodies that can stop—or “neutralize”—the many variants of the constantly mutating AIDS virus. Researchers have recently found several dozen broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that are highly potent and work at low doses. But viral immunologist Michael Farzan of the Scripps Research Institute in Jupiter, Florida, and 33 co-workers have recently taken a different strategy, building a novel molecule based on our knowledge of how HIV infects cells. HIV infects white blood cells by sequentially attaching to two receptors on their surfaces. First, HIV’s own surface protein, gp120, docks on the cell’s CD4 receptor. This attachment twists gp120 such that it exposes a region on the virus that can attach to the second cellular receptor, CCR5. The new construct combines a piece of CD4 with a smidgen of CCR5 and attaches both receptors to a piece of an antibody. In essence, the AIDS virus locks onto the construct, dubbed eCD4-Ig, as though it were attaching to a cell and thus is neutralized.
In test-tube experiments, eCD4-Ig outperformed all known natural HIV antibodies at stopping the virus from infecting cells, Farzan’s team reports in this week’s issue of Nature. To test how it works in animals, they then put a gene for eCD4-Ig into a harmless virus and infected four monkeys; the virus forces the monkey’s cells to mass produce the construct. When they “challenged” these monkeys and four controls with successively higher doses of an AIDS virus for up to 34 weeks, none of the animals that received eCD4-Ig became infected, whereas all of the untreated ones did.
The new study ups the ante on a similar gene therapy approach with natural antibodies that 6 years ago showed promise in monkey experiments, says an accompanying Nature editorial by AIDS vaccine researcher Nancy Haigwood of Oregon Health & Science University in Beaverton. “I am a huge fan of this paper,” Haigwood says. “It’s really very creative and a breakthrough as far as I am concerned.” Pediatrician Philip Johnson of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, whose lab in 2009 showed success with a gene therapy that delivers an HIV bNAb, adds that eCD4-Ig “is a beautiful thing.”
Building on work by Johnson’s group, Farzan’s team stitched the gene for eCD4-Ig into an adeno-associated virus (AAV) that is harmless to humans. Those viruses, injected into monkey muscles, continued to produce eCD4-Ig for the 40 weeks of the experiment. “Everyone expects with AAV that this can go on forever,” Farzan says. The animals had no detectable immune response against the eCD4-Ig, presumably because it is so similar to pieces of their own cells.
Not everyone is convinced that eCD4-Ig will ultimately work better than natural HIV antibodies. Virologist David Baltimore, a Nobel laureate based at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is working with a group developing its own AAV gene therapy that delivers an HIV bNAb. He describes the eCD4-Ig chimera and the paper as “impressive” and says he welcomes this new approach. But Baltimore, who like Johnson has already moved into early phase human trials with his gene therapy, notes that the new work offers only test-tube and animal data. “It’s perhaps a better construct than the antibodies we’ve been using, but it’s a matter of how it plays out in human trials,” Baltimore says. “I don’t think it’s easy to tell how that will happen.”
Johnson agrees that eCD4-Ig may not work as well as bNAbs in humans, but also says the natural antibodies, even if they have less potency and breadth, may be powerful enough to stop HIV. “How good is good enough?” Johnson asks. “Nobody has a clue about that. The only way you would know really is to do a bake-off in a human trial.”
Farzan says in theory at least, it will be harder for the virus to mutate its way around eCD4-Ig than a bNAb, because HIV needs to bind to CD4 and CCR5. Whether any of these gene therapies will prove safe and practical remains to be seen. Farzan, for his part, has more experiments planned before moving into humans. “We need to do a lot more monkey studies to see if there’s anything weird,” he says.
 

lilit

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Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #89 on: 26-04-2015, 12:01:31 »
Whoa, kakav iznenadan i neisprovociran povratak na forum  :lol:  Dobrodošli, dobrodošli.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #90 on: 26-04-2015, 19:43:07 »
de si bre mehane :lol:
posao me ubi a forumska forma preduga.

frustrira me količina nepoznanica u imunologiji, posledično je i vakcinologija na niskim granama al tako mu je to.
ni blizu hiv, tbc, hlamidija, malarija, etc vakcina.
horor.
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #91 on: 26-04-2015, 23:49:33 »
Ma, čujte, statistika ipak pokazuje da više od osamdeset posto građana Srbije umre od nezaraznih bolesti, dakle, čisto matematički, više treba da se bavimo kardiovaskularnim sistemom i kancerom (i ajde, dijabetesom) nego HIVom ili tuberkulozom čije su incidence srazmerno niske.
 
Naravno, ne do bog da se život svede na matematiku. Uzdamo se da ipak ove vakcine vidimo za naših života.

zakk

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #92 on: 27-04-2015, 14:29:23 »
Samo na Srbiju misliš, tsk tsk tsk
Why shouldn't things be largely absurd, futile, and transitory? They are so, and we are so, and they and we go very well together.

lilit

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Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #94 on: 03-06-2015, 09:13:06 »
Nije AIDS vakcina, ali jeste umjetni pankreas za ljude koji imaju dijabetes tip 1. Dakle, pametna mašina koja meri nivoe šećera u krvi i pušta insulin u krvotok kolko misli da treba.



Diabetes Has a New Enemy: Robo-Pancreas



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Sensors, actuators, and algorithms can automatically control blood sugar



The first great wonder drug was insulin, the blood-sugar-regulating hormone that was isolated in Canada nearly a century ago. The before-and-after pictures still astound: a skeletal wraith on the left, a rosy-cheeked child on the right.
But the promise of insulin has yet to be fulfilled. Normally, the pancreas, an organ near the liver, secretes insulin to control the concentration of glucose in the blood. In patients with type 1 diabetes—once known as juvenile diabetes because it’s usually diagnosed in children—the pancreas makes no insulin of its own, so those with the disease must work hard to mimic that organ’s function. If blood sugar goes too low, the patient faints; if it goes too high, it poses long-term risks to the eyes, nerves, and arteries. So several times a day the patient must prick a finger to test blood sugar, make a calculation based on planned meals and exercise, and adjust the injection of insulin to account for it all. The burden of self-management goes on night and day.


Now, after half a century of work, a solution at last is in the offing: the artificial pancreas. It links data from an implanted blood-sugar sensor to a computer, which then controls how a pump worn on the hip dribbles insulin under the skin through a pipette. In its fully realized form, the machine would take the patient out of the decision-making loop, which is why it is often called a closed-loop system.
“It is a classic problem in control technology, which is the methodology used in process control,” says Ahmad Haidar, an electrical engineer working on the problem at the Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM). Such technology is used, for instance, to guide a spacecraft or to govern the processing of crude oil in a refinery. Haidar’s group is one of a number of academic and corporate teams vying to create a closed-loop system for an artificial pancreas.
“Each patient is represented by a set of differential equations,” Haidar says, “parameterized based on physical information—body weight and total daily insulin dose, for instance.” Then the algorithm figures out how to administer that dose from one minute to the next to keep the glucose levels within safe bounds. Partial versions of the closed loop are being rolled out now, and more advanced versions are in clinical trials.
The work of Haidar’s group and others is finally promising to complete a vision that began more than a half-century ago and always seemed just around the corner. In 1978, in fact, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories, in New Mexico, wrote in these pages of an “electronic pancreas” that would come in three to five years’ time. This time, though, is different: Actual products are hitting the market, and closed-loop systems that take over more of the diabetes management are in trials. Finally, everybody in the field agrees that a solution is nigh.
A slew of improvements in sensors, actuators, algorithms, and insulin are coming together to create the artificial pancreas. Brian Herrick, diagnosed with type 1 at age 3, got to see the latest results for himself last November, during a trial in New York City of a system devised at the University of Virginia.
“The thing that was cool about it was that it works,” says Herrick, 27, who directs strategic communications at the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). Together with a colleague, he spent several days and nights in a controlled setting, surrounded by doctors and engineers.
“We used a Dexcom continuous glucose sensor, hooked through a cellphone with an algorithm and to a Roche pump, linked to it by a Bluetooth signal,” says Herrick, recalling each detail as if the trial had just happened. “One night my blood sugar was 80 [milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood], with an arrow pointing downward—it was dropping at 2 milligrams of glucose per deciliter per minute. The system shut off insulin, the blood sugar cruised down to 78, sat there, rose to 110, and then, no more movement. It was level.” Normal fasting blood glucose ranges from 70 to 100 mg/dl.
The trial mainly looked at nighttime control, which is critical, because the patient may not wake in time to handle a bout of low blood sugar. “My mother is still fearful of my sleeping at night, even though I’ve got my fiancée sleeping next to me,” says Herrick.
For now he is back to his old routine, making all the decisions himself, but with some help from a Dexcom glucose sensor that he applies to his upper arm, under his sleeve; it beams data to the screen of a pager-size reader. He uses the information to help decide what to eat and how much insulin to administer (although technically he is supposed to recheck the numbers with a finger stick before an injection).


It’s not completely automated, like the trial system was, but such continuous monitoring is itself a huge advance over 10 years ago, and one that lends itself to remote monitoring through the cloud. Last year, Dexcom got FDA approval for its Dexcom G4 Platinum System with Share, which parents can use to keep tabs on their kids’ blood sugar.
“Sure, it gives peace of mind to a mom or dad whose child goes to a first sleepover,” says Jorge A. Valdes, chief technical officer of Dexcom, in San Diego. “But consider: Once the data is in the servers, there’s a lot we can do to affect disease management.” For instance, doctors could mine the data for patterns in which patients suffer from low blood sugar, then adjust diet or insulin dosage accordingly.
The information can also be used to prove to insurers that the money they spend on health care is producing results. “Health care providers are more and more being paid for outcomes,” Valdes says. “Payers want patients to stay on the system; now they can make sure that patients do.”
The development of the technology has proceeded by measured steps, much like the progress toward the driverless car—first antilock brakes, next GPS navigation, then adaptive cruise control and self-parking. Finally, at the end of the rainbow, the Google self-driving car. The first step toward a robotic pancreas came in 1964, when a hospital-based experiment proved, in principle, that it was possible to achieve near-normal blood-sugar control. In the 1970s, Dean Kamen invented the insulin pump, making it possible for patients to administer insulin to themselves in a continuous fashion, rather than through frequent injections. Soon after, a hospital system called Biostator GCIIS was released in Germany; it combined a pump with a large, complex continuous glucose monitor.


In recent years, pumps have become smaller, more reliable, more programmable, and more comfortable, using ever-finer pipettes, which the patient inserts through a slightly larger needle. Continuous glucose monitors were first approved a decade ago, and they are beginning to replace the finger-prick method, now that improved coatings and other engineering details have allowed patients to keep their superthin electrochemical sensors under the skin for seven days. “I’ve had this one in for eight,” says Herrick.
The first machine worthy of the name of artificial pancreas was Medtronic’s Minimed 530G, which went on sale in the United States in 2014. It stops the flow of insulin when the patient’s blood glucose falls below a set point. Then, in January, Medtronic began selling the 640T; like the system Herrick tested, this system stops the insulin when its algorithm merely predicts that the patient’s blood sugar will drop. It’s on the market in Australia and is set to sell in Europe later this year. In the United States, the clinical trials are just getting under way.
Medtronic’s first clinical tests of what became the 640T began about a decade ago, says Francine R. Kaufmann, the company’s chief medical officer and a practicing endocrinologist. Why the long delay between the proof of concept and routine use? “There’s a big difference when you take someone who goes out and lives daily life, exercises, gets drunk, and other stuff,” Kaufmann says.
Much can go wrong. Pumps clog, algorithms misfire, sensors get walled off by scar tissue. Some of the recent technical advances are proprietary and still under wraps, but it’s known that Medtronic and Dexcom have developed biocompatible coatings as well as sensors with multiple electrochemical sites that can be polled to see which ones no longer work properly.
One of the biggest challenges is lag. In a feedback-control system with too much lag, your efforts to lower the upswings and raise the downswings can make those variations worse. Glucose sensors typically show you where your blood sugar was 10 minutes ago, but because they also track changes over time, they can give you a pretty good idea of where you stand now. The real problem is the insulin. Today’s bioengineered insulins, called analogues, reach their peak effect in 60 to 90 minutes. Even faster-acting analogues, now in the lab, may shave off another 15 minutes, but even that’s not good enough.
“To get a meaningful improvement, enough to have a fully closed loop, you need insulin to act in 10 to 15 minutes—total,” says Roman Hovorka, a specialist in mathematical informatics at the University of Cambridge, in England. “Two analogues in development are about 15 minutes faster than today’s—and that’s nowhere close enough.”
Your body responds to a meal as a sprinter does to a starter’s commands. When you just contemplate eating, nerves signal the pancreas to start synthesizing insulin: On your mark. When you swallow, insulin-making cells get ready for release: Get set. When your digestive tract has broken starch down into sugar and dumped it into the bloodstream, the pancreatic cells directly sense this change and dump their pent-up insulin: Go. In a heartbeat, the hormone reaches the liver, just a few centimeters away, where much of it is absorbed immediately. The liver then soaks up sugar, blood-sugar concentration falls, and the pancreas steps down its activity.
That level of control is far beyond what lag-plagued pumps can reasonably hope to achieve. The only way to match it is by growing or implanting new insulin-secreting cells in the patient’s body. Efforts in that direction have achieved scattered successes since the development, in the 1970s, of ways of controlling tissue rejection. But progress has been slow.
For now at least, the closed-loop robo-pancreas is ahead of such biological approaches, says IRCM’s Haidar, even though it will never duplicate the human body. “We know an airplane isn’t better than a bird,” he says. “We’re not replicating a pancreas—we can never beat how the body works.”
One way to speed the insulin’s effects is to implant a pump right inside the abdominal cavity, so the insulin can get to the liver more quickly. “But you’re talking about surgery,” Haidar says. “If you have a 2-year-old daughter, which would you prefer?”
Besides the sensor and the pump are the algorithms, the secret sauce that allows the artificial pancreas to analyze, learn, and control. One of the first algorithmic techniques looked at the rate of change of blood sugar. Another one, sometimes called an expert system, sets up a table that pairs problems with responses in the form “if this happens, do that; if that happens, do this,” says Aaron Kowalski, a medical geneticist who heads artificial-pancreas research for the JDRF.
A third kind of algorithm tries to model human physiology, for instance by considering how quickly food passes through your system and how long the insulin takes to work. “The beauty of this approach is that it’s like chess programming: You reset the variable when your opponent makes his move—that is, when new data arrive,” says Kowalski.
Tuning these algorithms requires big data, gathered from both the individual patient and the larger community of patients. Hovorka’s group at the University of Cambridge is conducting trials of advanced systems in the home, not just in controlled settings. Hovorka is also working with a corporate partner, but he won’t say which one. (He notes, however, that only two companies are pushing the closed-loop solution now: Medtronic and Animas Corp., in West Chester, Pa.) He says his algorithms learn by doing and so adapt to the patient.
“The algorithm analyzes during the day and between days for short-term learning and also longer term,” Hovorka says. “If somebody goes skiing, you can see a drop-off in blood sugar, and the system has to be able to cope. Every 10 to 12 minutes we run the algorithm for predictive control. We have a number of models running in parallel, with each given a probabilistic value based on how well it fitted the data in the past.
“We can achieve what no other technology can do now,” he says. “Hypoglycemia [low blood sugar] is down 30 to 50 percent,” Hovorka says. Patients spent 20 percent longer in the targeted zone for blood sugar—not too high and not too low.
“It’s good enough to use now—I believe so,” he insists.
One of the most fraught questions in the robo-pancreas community has been whether to stick with insulin alone or to add a pump for the hormone glucagon. Insulin lowers blood sugar by helping the body—particularly the liver—store it. In the liver, glucose is converted to glycogen, a kind of animal starch. Glucagon works in the opposite direction by stimulating the liver to turn that starch back into sugar and dump it into the bloodstream. People with diabetes often carry a special pen charged with glucagon for others to use on them in case they faint from low blood sugar.
In a dual-hormone pump, insulin serves as the accelerator and glucagon as the brake, in principle allowing for finer control. But at a diabetes technology conference held in Paris this past February, funding organizations appeared to have doubled down on the simpler one-hormone system in the hope that it will get approved more easily.
One cause of the change was a recent report by researchers from IRCM. They compared the one- and two-hormone systems and found no significant advantage for the dual-hormone method. Their report seems to have had an effect.
“Prior to Paris, I’d have said the jury was still out,” says IRCM’s Remi Rabasa-Lhoret, one of the authors of the report. “Now I believe the jury is not out. Other teams working on the single-hormone approach have progressed immensely. The JDRF told us in a private meeting: You are doing a good job, and we want to put all our money on bringing the closed loop to market.”
What’s next? As the millions of people with type 1 diabetes work out the kinks in the new technology, it will spread to the hundreds of millions with type 2 diabetes, many of whom would also benefit from insulin but shy away from it because of the needles and the bother.
Now that the artificial pancreas is finally within reach, we can look back at this as the perfect case study of excessive technological optimism. A machine that senses which way your blood sugar is going and keeps it on the right track—how hard could it be? How long could it take?
Hard as hell. And 50 years.


Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #95 on: 12-06-2015, 06:32:38 »
Kažu nije od vakcine:
 
 The Type of Parents Most Likely to Have a Child with Autism
 
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A massive new study on autism risk has found elevations related to parental age — of both teen moms and older parents.
With an analysis of more than 5.7 million children in five countries, the study, published Wednesday in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, is the largest of its kind to ever look at the connection between parental age and autism risk.
STORY: What It’s Like to Be a Kid With Autism
“The size of the study speaks to the definitiveness of the findings,” says co-author Michael Rosanoff, director of public health research for Autism Speaks, the organization that funded the study. “We can now say confidently that advanced paternal and maternal age is a risk factor for autism.” Such findings are not new, he tells Yahoo Parenting, but this is by far the most sweeping of its kind.
It also turned up some new correlations: In addition to finding that autism rates were 66 percent higher among children born to dads over the age of 50 than those in their 20s (and 28 percent higher for dads in their 40s), researchers found rates were 18 percent higher with teen moms than those with moms in their 20s.
STORY: Controversial Cannabis Treatment Helps 9-Year-Old Boy Speak His First Words
Also, autism rates were 15 percent higher in children born to mothers in their 40s — and higher than usual when there were wide gaps, of 10 years or more, between parents. That was especially true when dads were between 35 and 44 and their partners were at least a decade younger.
The increased risk on both sides of the age spectrum raise many questions, and Rosanoff says, “was intriguing to the investigators.”
Theories regarding the rise in autism risk for kids of older parents are pretty solid, he notes, explaining that one points to evidence that “we accumulate mutations in sperm and egg cells as we age.” Another hypothesis is that people who have children at advanced ages may do so because they themselves are “on the spectrum,” and may have social difficulties that made it tough for them to couple up and become parents for much of their early adult lives; in these cases, researchers theorize, there may be a genetic link to autism.
Looking at higher risk among teen moms, Rosanoff adds, scientists believe age itself might point to a “suboptimal pregnancy,” with less medical monitoring and higher health risks in general.
Still, there’s no reason for alarm, notes co-author Sven Sandin, a medical epidemiologist, in an Autism Speaks press release. “Although parental age is a risk factor for autism, it is important to remember that, overall, the majority of children born to older or younger parents will develop normally,” says the doctor, a medical epidemiologist with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, in New York, and Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.
The goal of the new study was to determine whether advancing maternal or paternal ages independently increase autism risk, and to what extent. But much more research is needed before any recommendations about birth and parenting age get officially changed, Rosanoff says.
“Risk doesn’t mean cause,” he notes. “These are risk factors helping us to understand ideological pathways — but not a cause in itself.”
 

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #96 on: 12-06-2015, 07:13:41 »
Quote
...Also, autism rates were ... higher than usual when there were wide gaps, of 10 years or more, between parents. That was especially true when dads were between 35 and 44 and their partners were at least a decade younger...

meho, stvarno znas covjeku pokvariti dan. :cry:

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #97 on: 12-06-2015, 07:56:52 »
Hvala, trudim se.

lilit

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #98 on: 12-06-2015, 09:13:09 »
jedino bitno:

“Risk doesn’t mean cause,” he notes. “These are risk factors helping us to understand ideological pathways — but not a cause in itself.”
Some things you have to do yourself.

Meho Krljic

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Re: AIDS vakcina
« Reply #99 on: 12-06-2015, 09:16:18 »
Najbolje je ne rizikovati i sterilisati se čim krene pubertet.